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DEPARTMENT OF 
LANDS AND FORESTS 



ONTARIO 



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ANNUAL 
REPORT 




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OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

OF JHEPIiOVINCE OF ONTARIO FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 1969. 



DEPARTMENT OF 
LANDS AND FORESTS 




ONTARIO 



TO HIS HONOUR, 

The Lieutenant-Governor 

of the Province of Ontario. 



MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR 

The undersigned begs respectfully to present to your Honour, the 
Annual Report of the Department of Lands and Forests for the 
fiscal year beginning April 1st, 1968, and ending March 31, 1969. 




RENE BRUNELLE 
Minister 



ANNUAL 
REPORT 



OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

OF THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 1969. 




Fish and Wildlife Branch 
Wildlife Section 
Fisheries Section 



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6 

19 



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CONTENTS 



Parks Branch 


37 


Forest Protection Branch 


49 


Lands and Surveys Branch 


59 


Personnel Branch 


63 


Accounts Branch 


66 


Law Branch 


74 


Operations Branch 


81 


Reasearch Branch 


87 



Timber Branch 

Reforestation Section 
Silviculture Section 
Timber Section 



97 

98 

105 

109 



FOREWORD 



The Annual Report presents a review of the past year's 
activities of the Department of Lands and Forests within a 
functional Branch framework. Additional detail is provided 
in "Statistics, 1970" which is released concurrently. 

The interrelationships between the Department's many 
activities and its over-all aim is implied m the Department's 
goal statement: 

To encourage on private lands and waters, and to provide 
from Crown lands and waters, a continuing combination of 
renewable resource production and outdoor recreation 
opportunities most consistent with the social and economic 
well-being of the people of Ontario 

The term "renewable resource production" refers to the 
non-agricultural production of plants and animals for com- 
mercial purposes. Examples are timber, fish (commercial 
catch), and fur. 

The term "outdoor recreation opportunities" refers to all 
recreational pursuits, usually associated with the natural 
environment, which contribute to the physical health and 
mental well-being of the participants, the term is interpreted 
broadly to include cultural activities concerned with the 
understanding of natural history and the Ontario environ- 
ment through observation and scientific study. 

The term "continuing combination" is particularly impor- 
tant since it refers to the multiple use of renewable, natural 
resources and their custody for future generations, and the 
concomitant management of the environment. 

The concept of multiple use, or integrated resource man- 
agement, is basic in meeting man's needs. Our land and 
water resources are limited, but the demand for a wide 
variety of goods and services is increasing each year. Ac- 
cordingly, consideration of the single-use concept is becom- 
ing increasingly difficult. 

The term "continuing" implies the concept of stewardship 
for future generations. It also refers to the Department's 
deep interest in the principles of ecology and their applica- 
tion in the management of the natural environment. 

The Department is developing more specific objectives 
which are under review. As presented below, they state the 
objectives preferred at this time. 



RESOURCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 

To encourage on private lands and waters, and to provide 
from Crown lands and waters, the optimum, continuing 
contribution of renewable-resource production Industries to 
the economy of Ontario and its communities. 

OUTDOOR RECREATION 

(a) To provide opportunities for a wide variety of outdoor- 
recreation experiences, oriented to day use, accessible 
to, and for the benefit of, all the people of Ontario. 

(b) To provide on an economically sound basis, opportuni- 
ties for the enjoyment of outdoor-recreation experi- 
ences on an overnight or extended-use basis. 

(c) To provide continuing outdoor recreation opportunities 
for tourism to benefit the economy of Ontario and its 
communities. 





ORGANIZATION 
CHART 



MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS 
Hon. RENE BRUNELLE 



EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT 
R. L. Kertson 



DEPUTY MINISTER 
C.H. U. BAYLY 



CHIEFS OF HEAD OFFICE BRANCHES 



ACCOUNTS I'l^^r^'^^!,'? no^?c^,?xI^v, '"'^MDwc^'^^ LAW OPERATIONS PARKS PERSONNEL RESEARCH TIMBER 

R. R. MacBean „ ^ .. „ ^ ^ ^ „ ^ ^ , C. H. Ferguson G. A. Hamilton P. Addison J.M.Taylor Dr. \V. R. Henson A. J. Herridge 

Dr. C. H. D. Clarke W. T. Foster R. G. Code 



ASSISTANT 
DEPUTY MINISTER 

R. D. K. Acheson 



NORTHWESTERN REGION 

REGIONAL DIRECTOR 

PORT ARTHUR 

L. Ringham 



NORTHEASTERN REGION 

REGIONAL DIRECTOR 

SUDBURY 

J. W. Lockvvood 



SOUTHERN REGION 

REGIONAL DIRECTOR 

MAPLE 

J. W. Giles 



ONTARIO 
FOREST TECHNICAL SCHOOL 

R. VV. Hummel, Director 



REGIONAL FORESTER & 

PARK SUPERINTENDENT 

ALGONQUIN PARK 

T. W. Hueston 




FISH 

AND 

WILDLIFE 

BRANCH 



Fish and Wildlife Branch is divided into two sections and 
their subordinate units with duties and responsibilities as 
follows. 

WILDLIFE 

• Came Management: Maintenance and increase of game 
abundance through improvement of habitat, regulations, 
inventory of game numbers, measure of participation by 
hunters, establishment of public hunting areas; and develop- 
ment of agreement with landowners to provide improved 
game habitat and hunting opportunities. 

• Fur Management: Biologically sound management of fur- 
bearing animals; counselling of trappers to assist them in 
achieving the highest economic returns for their furs; regu- 
lations; stocking of animals in depleted areas; and licensing 
of fur farms. 

• Field Services: Enforcement of the hunting and fishing 
regulations; development of training programs for con- 
servation officers related to law enforcement; development 
of programs to secure the co-operation of the public in 
observing regulations; and conduct of hunter examinations. 

FISHERIES 

• Sport Fisheries and Hatcheries: Planning, co-ordinating 
and stimulating programs to maintain, develop and expand 
the Province's sport fisheries through habitat improvement, 
regulations, inventory of fish populations, measurement of 
angler activity and angler harvests, development of provin- 
cial fishing areas, providing information, production of 
hatchery stock and assessment of its effectiveness, distribu- 
tion of fish, and stimulation of commercial hatchery and 
private fish pond development. 

• Commercial Fisheries: Planning and co-ordinating pro- 
grams based on sound biologic, social and economic bases 
for the optimum commercial utilization of the Province's 
fishery resources; issuing licences; collection of statistics 
(both biologic and economic) on commercial harvests of 
fish; regulation of harvest through seasons, quotas, gear 
restrictions and other means; and the development of pro- 
grams to assist and stimulate industry in catching, process- 
ing, handling and marketing of fish. 

• Fisheries Inventory: Inventory of the waters of the Prov- 
ince; organization and co-ordination of the field programs; 
and implementation of data processing systems to utilize 
inventory information for biologic, economic and other 
uses. 

'Indian Resource Development: Administration and co- 
ordination of resource program of fisheries, wildlife, for- 
estry, recreation, etc., under the Federal-Provincial Re- 
source Development Agreement; and development of pro- 
grams for Indian use of resources. 



WILDLIFE SECTION 

DEER HUNTING 
AND MANAGEMENT 

The deer management program m Ontario aims at 1) main- 
taining a satisfactory deer population for hunting and view- 
ing, and 2) promoting full use of our deer as a natural re- 
source. We do not guarantee that hunters will get their 
deer. Unfavourable weather during the hunting season may 
still frustrate the hunters. This was the way it went in 
southern Ontario in 1968. 

The first three days were dry and warm through most of 
the southern Ontario deer range. This made it difficult for 
hunters to find and approach deer. Then came the floods in 
some areas and snowbanks in others. Few hunters moved 
from their cabins. Those who ventured forth despite the bad 
weather found little sign of deer; apparently the weather 
caused the deer to remain in sheltered places, too. At the 
end of the first week, when hunters were leaving their 
camps, the deer started to move, and there were tracks 
everywhere. 

The second week was considerably better as evidenced, 
for example, by the data from Arnprior checking station. 
Hunter success there was only 11% the first weekend, but 
on the second weekend it doubled to 22%. 

Hunters in Pembroke Forest District were relatively well 
satisfied although over-all success was a little below last 
year, (14.5%, compared with 16.2% in 1967). They saw 
plenty of deer signs, and the percentage of fawns remained 
high at 33%. 

Farther south in Kempt\ille Forest District, hunter success 
was down slightly. In Tweed Forest District, it was much 
poorer. Snow depths in northern Tweed District were six 
to eight inches, and the wet snow clung to bushes and 
trees making hunting difficult and uncomfortable. The re- 
sult was a drop in success during the first week from 26.4% 
in 1967 to only 15.8%. However, here, too, the percentage 
of fawns was high (32.7%) and there was no evidence of 
deer shortage. 

As usual when hunting conditions are difficult, casual 
hunters were hit much harder than those in organized 
camps. The latter knew their areas well enough to get some 
deer in spite of the weather, but the casuals had a hard 
time finding any. In Lindsay Forest District, the success at 
checking stations dropped from 22.4% in 1967 to only 
11.2%, while results from the hunt camps showed only a 
moderate decrease from 42.6% in 1967 to 32.5%. 



The Parry Sound Forest District hunting was moderately 
good. Rain occurred over most of the district rather than 
snow as farther east. At 22.2%, hunter success was con- 
siderably lower than in 1967 (34.2%) but above 1966 

(19.2%). 

On the Bruce Peninsula, the hunt was very similar to that 
of 1967. Hunter success was 10.5% in 1967, 10.3% in 1968. 

Hunting was no better farther south or farther north. In 
the farming areas, the warm dry weather during the first 
three days made hunting very difficult. At Sault Ste. Marie, 
these warm conditions continued through all but two days 
of the two-week season. The result was much poorer suc- 
cess than in the last two years, but here again about one- 
third of the deer were fawns, indicating a healthy herd. At 
North Bay, the first week was wet, and the ground was 
covered with frozen snow during the second week. The 
result was very poor success. Sudbury mainland was similar. 

On Manitoulin Island, hunter success (23.0%) was down 
about the level of the other eastern areas. The setting of the 
season two weeks later won approval from most people. 

Few data are available from northwestern Ontario since 
difficulties, encountered with the newly introduced com- 
puterized mail survey, delayed the final report. A sample 
of 851 hunters checked at Kenora had an improved hunter 
success of 49.4% compared with 38.9% in 1967. On the 
other hand, only 98 deer passed through the Red Lake Road 
checking station in 1968 compared with 132 in 1967. 

Given reasonably good hunting weather in 1969, hunt- 
ing should be better throughout the eastern deer range. 
In northwestern Ontario, hunting will be good in the 
Kenora area, but poorer than normal around Sioux Lookout 
and Fort Frances because of the mortality resulting from 
deep snow last winter. 

DEER RANGE MANAGEMENT 

To provide browse in the vicinity of traditional wintering 
areas is one of the main purposes of the deer range manage- 
ment program. Winter food is the single, most important 
factor determining the survival of deer from year to year in 
much of Ontario. The critical time is when deep snow on 
the ground limits the activity of the deer to travel in search 
of browse. In mild winters, the greater availability of the 
food supply leads to greater reproductive success. In severe 
winters, browsing possibilities are more limited, and even 
plentiful browse may not be as effective in producing a 
good fawn crop, though it helps to reduce mortality among 
the wintering animals. 

If cover is left, logging usually contributes to the develop- 
ment of range. In tall forests with closed canopies, there is 
little food for deer since shrubs and other regeneration are 



limited. In many localities, decreased logging makes deer 
hunting more and more dependent on improvements 
through the deer range management program. 

This program has been greatly expanded in the past three 
years as indicated by the number of acres treated. In the 
winter of 1966-7, 225 acres were cut to supply browse. This 
was increased to 2,260 in 1967-8. 

In 1968-9, 3,350 acres were treated in nine forest districts, 
and this had the effect of improving wintering possibilities 
over some 130,000 acres of winter range. In summer, deer 
will range over an area about 10 times as large; it is thus 
clear that considerable hunting range is now benefitting. 
The cost was $184,500. We intend to continue treatment on 
this scale to assure the survival of many more deer for the 
use and enjoyment of the people of Ontario. 

When old conifers disappear, deer will disappear with 
them. Measures are now being developed to increase and 
manage the type of coniferous stands that deer need for 
winter shelter. It is expected that a planting program, to 
establish such a cover, can be undertaken on a meaningful 
scale in 1973. 

Successful hunters weigh moose at Red Lake Road checking 
station, Sioux Lookout Forest District. 



BROWSE PRODUCTION (acres), 1968-9 




Forest 


Net A 


vrea 


Winter Range 


District 


Treated 


Affected 


Sault Ste. Marie 


169 


acres 


4,500 acres 


Sudbury 


219 




5,000 


North Bay 


447 




19,000 


Parry Sound 


410 




6,900 


Pembroke 


1,138 




70,000 


Lindsay 


552 




13,100 


Tweed 


386 




3,300 


Lake Simcoe 


13 




200 


Lake Huron 


17 




7,600 


TOTAL 


3,351 


acres 


129,600 acres 



MOOSE HUNTING 
AND MANAGEMENT 

Ontario's moose management program aims at providing 

1) a moose population as large as can be reconciled with 
timber production and forest management in general, and 

2) as much hunting and viewing as the population will sus- 
tain. We are constantly seeking ways to improve our col- 
lection of data for a management program cannot be sound 
unless it is based on accurate information. 

For the first lime, in 1968, a computer was used to assist 
in the annual, mailed survey of moose hunters. The many 
difficulties involved in this new method have delayed pro- 
duction of a final report. Despite the delay, we are con- 
vinced of the value of this type of survey because 1) a great 
workload has been lifted from district staffs which previous- 
ly had to handle all the questionnaires by hand, and 2) it 
allows the collecting of information which could not be 
handled otherwise. Although statistics concerning the 1968 
moose hunt are still fragmentary, those we have suggest 
that, as with deer hunters, weather was the greatest obstacle 
to moose hunters. For some reason, hunting by boat or 
canoe is never as effective when water levels are high, and 
water levels were at record heights during the fall of 1968. 
In addition, weather in northeastern Ontario was so mild 
and rainy that it seemed more like summer time than moose 
hunting weather. This apparently reduced the respbnse of 
moose to "calling". This was not so much the cas^ farther 
west. 

In spite of the difficulties, many hunters were successful, 
and success rates varied from slightly below normal in 
Sioux Lookout to slightly above normal in Port Arthur. In 



northeastern Ontario, there did not appear to be much 
change from the success during 1967. 

Checking stations at heavily hunted areas continued to 
show that moose are standing up well to the hunting pres- 
sure. For example, the harvest of moose on the Black Stur- 
geon Road, Port Arthur Forest District, from 1963 to 1968 
has been 265, 254, 265, 228, 208, and 237, respectively, 
based on a four-week sample for the first three years and 
two weeks for the last three. There has been no significant 
decrease in moose numbers on this heavily hunted area or 
the numbers taken each year would have decreased. 

Additional evidence involves the sex ratios of moose shot. 
If hunting were affecting the herd, we would expect that 
each year there would be a lesser proportion of bulls in the 
kill, simply because hunters had removed so many from the 
herd. At Black Sturgeon this year, instead of a smaller per- 
centage of bulls, 75 per cent of the adults killed were males. 
Similar sex ratios are reported each year across northern 
Ontario. 

This year, for the first time, we were able to obtain evi- 
dence that this continual selection for bulls does have some 
effect on the moose herd. During December, light aircraft 
were used to find as many moose as possible and classify 
them as bulls, cows or calves. We chose December for this 
work because most bulls still have antlers and calves are 
small enough to be distinguished from older moose. In 
Fort Frances Forest District, the survey was both inside 
Quetico Provincial Park, where there has been no hunting 
for many years, and in a similar type of habitat outside 
where hunting occurs. Results showed that inside the park, 
bulls constituted 56.9% of all adults, but outside only 
41.5%. Similar data were obtained elsewhere, suggesting 
that our present hunting seasons result in fewer cows being 
harvested than would be expected. Probably, this small 
surplus of cows is helpful in maintaining good breeding 
stocks. 

For the first time in three years, a moose season was 
opened south of the French and Mattawa rivers. The wait 
was worthwhile since this was the best moose hunt in the 
south for many years with over 700 moose taken. About 500 
were shot in Parry Sound Forest District alone. It appears 
that this kind of occasional open season is best for this 
heavily hunted, easily accessible area. 

The issuing of crests in return for moose jaws continued 
as an unqualified success. There was another 25% increase 
in the number of jaws received in 1968; the total was over 
4,000, double the number collected in 1966, the last year 
before crests were introduced. From these jaws, the ages 
of the moose are determined. Good reproduction and 
reasonable harvest rates in most northern districts were 
demonstrated. 



Prospects for next year are good throughout northern 
Ontario if the weather is suitable for hunting. A few cool 
sunny days and crisp clear nights near the first of the season 
are most desirable. There will not likely be another season 
in southern Ontario for a year or two. The moose popula- 
tion continues to hold up well, but the increasing noise and 
disturbance from more hunters each year is making moose 
more difficult to find near roads. The wise moose hunter 
gets back-in. 

BEAR HUNTING 
AND MANAGEMENT 

Bear Management aims at reducing the wasteful shooting 
of bears, merely because they are a nuisance, and promoting 
more positive uses such as sport hunting and observing. It 
was apparent from the most extraordinary increase in bear 
licence sales in 1968 that this approach is successful. The 
sale of non-resident spring bear licences nearly doubled 
from 4,872 in 1967 to 8,333 in 1968. In addition, resident 
spring bear licences increased from 964 to 1,142. Since the 
sale of bear licences was the highest on record in 1967, this 
doubling of licence sales is indeed striking. 

Obviously, bear hunting is gaining rapidly in popularity. 
Reports of very high numbers of bears during the previous 
summer may account for some of this increase. Another 
important factor is the high success rate which actually 
improved in 1968 in spite of higher numbers of hunters. In 
1967, over-all reported success was 41.7%, but in 1968 it 
increased to 48.3%. This approach to bears, as a natural 
resource worthy of use, is much to be preferred to the 
shooting of bears at garbage dumps. 

The northeastern region of Ontario is by far the most 
favoured for spring bear hunting. In 1968, 71.2% of the 
1,571 non-residents reporting and 62.1% of the 124 resi- 
dents reporting hunted in northeastern Ontario. Only 
25.1% of the non-residents and 16.9% of the residents 
hunted in northwestern Ontario. It is perhaps surprising that 
as many as 3.7% of the non-residents and 1.2% of the 
residents hunted in southern Ontario. 

One of the interesting facts to emerge from our increas- 
ing knowledge of bear hunting is the very high ratio of 
adult males to adult females shot by hunters. In 1968, the 
ratio among adults was 194 adult males per 100 adult 
females. Since we expect a 1 :1 sex ratio, there may be a 
strong hunter selection for males. 

The best time for bear hunting is during the last week of 
May and the first week of )une. Prospects are that bear 
hunting will continue to be good but, perhaps, due to 



natural fluctuations in the numbers of bears, some annual 
variation is to be expected. 

UPLAND GAME MANAGEMENT 

Management objectives for upland game include the pro- 
vision of regulations which will enable hunters to make 
maximum use of resident small game species, several of 
which are traditionally under-har^'ested; to encourage the 
use of woodland and upland management practices which 
increase small game production; and to provide the public 
with sound predictions relative to the annual availability of 
small game. 

RUFFED GROUSE 

The year 1968 was not a good year for ruffed grouse al- 
though much "leaner" hunting years are on record. An 
excellent grouse season was enjoyed in many northern 
districts in 1967. Extremely cold, wet weather, which set 
all-time records for some areas during the critical brooding 
period in the following late May and June, lowered the 
survival of grouse chicks across most of the Province. Two- 
thirds of the forest districts reporting indicated a much 
lower than usual ratio of young to old birds taken by 
hunters. 

Lower hunter success was reflected in bag check in- 
formation; the average number of grouse shot per 100 hours 
by hunters on foot across the Province was 47, 46, and 32 
for 1966, 1967 and 1968, respectively. Similarly, the average 
number of birds shot per hundred miles given by those 
hunting along bush roads was 6.5, 9.4, and 4.9, respectively. 

On the strength of brood observations before the season, 
most districts predicted lower hunter success for autumn, 
1968. 

SHARPTAILED GROUSE 

For the second consecutive year, northern sharptailed 
grouse migrated from the lowlands of lames and Hudson 
Bays into more settled portions of northern Ontario. The 
season on this species was extended until March 31st, and 
this produced additional hunting recreation. Birds are not 
as abundant as in the winter of 1967-8, however. 

RING-NECKED PHEASANTS 

Ontario winters limit the breeding distribution of pheasants 
to a relatively narrow fringe of range north of Lake Erie and 
the western margins of Lake Ontario. Areas which consis- 
tently receive much over fifty inches of snowfall per season 
support few, if any, ring-necks. 



Across the breeding range, hunting success has varied In 
recent years, and research is underway to determine why 
some areas support better pheasant numbers than others. 
The 1968 season was much improved in several counties. 
The Lake Simcoe Forest District reported the best success 
since 1963, and hunters bagged just under one bird per day 
for the complete season. Opening day hunters in the Lake 
Huron district also had slightly better success, both in birds 
taken per hunter and in lower effort required to bag a bird. 
Hunter success was also improved in Essex County, although 
it was still poorer than in areas to the east within the 
pheasant range. 

In 1968, a count of crowing cock-birds in spring was 
initiated on transects throughout the pheasant range. This 
survey is designed to show trends in pheasant breeding 
populations and will be continued on a yearly basis. 

The Department continued to propagate pheasants for 
release, both on private lands and on public hunting areas. 
Chicks and poults were provided to regulated townships 
for release prior to the season from the Provincial Came 
Bird Farms at Normandale and Codrington. Production in 
1968 comprised 41,000 chicks, 14,400 poults, and 6,500 
adults. Returns to the hunter from five-, to seven-week-old 
poult releases have been consistently low. Rearing pheas- 
ants for release just prior to the season puts a very much 
larger percentage of birds in the bag, and this practice is 
being encouraged. 

Giant Canada goose on tub nest. Lake St. Lawrence goose 
management area. 



~^^^ 




HUNGARIAN PARTRIDGE 

It was a good year for Hungarian partridge, particularly in 
the eastern counties of Dundas, Stormont, Prescott, Russell 
and Carleton. Kernptville district staff tallied 367 gun days 
of hunting and 1,049 Huns for an average of 2.9 birds per 
gun day. This compares with 2.8 and 2.2 birds per gun day 
for the 1967 and 1966 seasons, respectively. 

Hungarian partridge were live-trapped in the Ottawa area 
again during the 1968-9 winter, and 56 were traded to 
Michigan in return for fox squirrels which will be introduced 
into Lambton County. Attempts to propagate partridge at 
the Codrington Came Bird Farm continued, but results in 
1968 were disappointing. 

RABBITS AND HARES 

The cottontail rabbit, the European hare (or jack), and the 
snowshoe or varying hare produce a considerable amoLmt 
of hunting recreation. Cottontail rabbits and jacks were in 
reasonably good supply over most of the range in southern 
Ontario in 1968. A total of 3,559 hunters, checked in Lake 
Huron and Lake Simcoe districts, averaged approximately 
6.3 hours of hunting for each rabbit or hare taken in 1968. 
This compared with almost seven hours of hunting required 
the year previously. 

WOODCOCK 

The American woodcock is a much overlooked game species 
in Ontario, hunted by comparatively few dedicated hunters. 
Good numbers of woodcock are produced in Ontario, but 
relatively little is known concerning relative breeding densi- 
ties across the Province. In 1968, Ontario participated in a 
survey of breeding woodcock which was co-ordinated 
throughout eastern North America by the United States Fish 
and Wildlife Service. 

Little information on woodcock hunting for 1968 is avail- 
able. Twenty co-operating hunters in the Lake Simcoe dis- 
trict reported a season kill of 369 woodcocks during 381 
man-hours of hunting for a season average of 18.5 birds per 
hunter, and a hunting effort of slightly mce than one hour 
per bird bagged. This may be compared with an average 
season bag for 36 hunters of 11.1 birds in 1967. 

RACCOONS 

Raccoons are gaining the attention of more hunters each 
year. "Coon" hunting with hounds at night under the 
authority of a raccoon licence, available from Department 
offices only, is more popular than many people realize. In 
1968, 1,050 raccoon hunting licences were sold across 
southern Ontario. Raccoon populations are high, and this 
was reflected in hunter success in Lake Simcoe and Lake 
Huron districts where 242 hunters reported 4,484 raccoons 
harvested, or 18 per hunter, in 1967. 



COYOTES 

There has been a general increase in coyotes or brush wolf 
populations m agricultural southern Ontario, and many 
"hound men" are taking advantage of some excellent sport 
and are also collectmg bounties. Of 892 coyotes taken dur- 
ing 1967 in the six most southerly forest districts, 549, or 
over 60%, fell to the shotgun or rifle. The figure includes a 
few wolves killed m the northern parts of Tweed and 
Lindsay districts. 

GREY SQUIRRELS 

Grey squirrels provided reasonably good hunting in south- 
western Ontario, the only area in the province with a 
squirrel hunting tradition. Black squirrels, a colour phase 
of the grey, become progressively more common as one 
moves from south to north in southern Ontario; they are 
extending their range northward in the Precambrian Shield, 
and they are more abundant than usual in south-central 
and eastern Ontario. They are an excellent, but largely 
neglected, game animal in the Province. 

WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT 

VVatertowl management objectives in Ontario include the 
maintenance of populations at or near levels which occurred 
in the 1955-8 period, and the provision of sustained quality 
recreation for hunters and non-hunters alike. 

Waterfowl hunting remained extremely popular in On- 
tario, and 139,182 Federal Migratory Bird Hunting Permits 
were sold in the Province for the 1968 season. This total 
was more than that of the three Prairie provinces combined 
and almost 40 per cent of the national total. 

The 1968 waterfowl season was not as successful as dur- 
ing the previous years, and very mild "bluebird" weather 
made ducks difficult to hunt. In addition, a poor produc- 
tion year of blue and snow geese in the high Arctic marked- 
ly lowered success on James and Hudson Bays. 

Opening-day duck hunter success was good, averaging 
approximately one bird per hunter in southern Ontario and 
as high as 1.7 birds per hunter in local areas of northern 
Ontario. Duck hunting later in the season was not nearly as 
productive. Federal surveys indicated the average bag per 
successful hunter fell from 11.0 in 1967 to 9.8. The propor- 
tion of the various duck species taken by Ontario hunters 
remained similar to that of the previous year, with mallards, 
blacks, wood ducks, green-winged teal, blue-winged teal, 
and ring-necked ducks making up almost 80 per cent of 
the total harvest. 

Although continental populations of Canada geese con- 
tinue to rise, there are few opportunities to hunt these 



10 



trophy birds in many areas of the Province. The local breed- 
ing populations of giant Canada geese on the St, Lawrence 
Management Unit continued to increase and larger numbers 
of migrants used the St. Lawrence area. Goose huntmg in 
the eastern counties continues to improve with each pass- 
ing year. 

Leg-banding of waterfowl continues to be an important 
management technique in following trends and popula- 
tions, where, unlike western Canada, aerial and ground sur- 
veys cannot provide good information on important forest 
nesting species such as the black and wood duck. Almost 
9,000 ducks and 283 Canada geese were banded by the 
Department of Lands and Forests in association with private 
co-operators at 35 banding stations across the Province in 
1968. 

Few Canada geese nest in southern Ontario. A program to 
establish the giant Canada goose, a southern-breeding race, 
in southern Ontario was begun in 1968 in association with 
the Ontario Waterfowl Research Foundation at Guelph. 
Over 200 goslings were reared in 1968, and most will be 
released when they are two and three years of age in a 
special pilot study area comprising Wellington and Water- 
loo Counties and five adjoining Townships in Grey, Duft'erin 
and Brant Counties. Larger numbers of geese will be raised 
in the next few years. If the establishment program meets 
with success, it is expected that releases of breeding stock 
will be extended to include other areas of the Province. 

PROVINCIAL HUNTING AREAS 

In the Provincial Hunting Area program, the primary goal is 
to provide a place to hunt in areas where hunting opportun- 
ities have become most restricted and the need for public 
hunting ground is most urgent. A high-quality hunting ex- 
perience is another goal. A third objective is to create a 
public awareness of the value of wildlife in modern society. 

The need for public hunting grounds is greatest within 
day-use range of the major centres of population in southern 
Ontario. There are lands better suited for wildlife manage- 
ment than other uses within the range of these centres, but 
in southwestern Ontario there is a minimum of public land 
with public access assured for the future. 

Marshlands are among the most productive lands suit- 
able for wildlife. Through proper habitat manipulation tech- 
niques, the productivity and attractiveness of wetlands can 
be improved for waterfowl, furbearers and other aquatic 
bird and animal life. At the same time, opportunities for the 
general public to view wild creatures in their native environ- 
ment can be provided in such habitat. 



Acquisition of marshlands in southern Ontario is an 
important program; as indicated in the accompanying 
table, ten of the 21 land acquisitions are wetlands. 

LANDS ACQUIRED FOR WILDLIFE 
PURPOSES, 1962-9 



Area 



County 



Acres 



Acres 
1968-9 



150 

40 
194 



Tiny Marsh * Simcoe 2,246 

Angle Ditch Marsh ... * Bruce 200 

Luther Marsh ' Dufferin 919 

Wye Marsh * Simcoe 925 

Johnston Harbour . . . Bruce 4,204 

Dept. Highways — various 1,062 
Transfer 

Aylmer Airport Elgin 555 

Fingal Airport Elgin 780 

Duclos Point * York 188 

Holland Marsh * Simcoe 375 

Brighton Northumberland 622 

Kendal Durham 650 

Murray Marsh * Northumberland 1,598 

Charlottenburg Stormont 258 

Millbrook Durham 188 

Dalton Victoria 100 

Gananoque Leeds 1,046 

Winchester Bog * Dundas 3,600 

Long Point * Norfolk 90 

Nonquon River * Ontario 2,138 

MacCauley Twp Muskoka 1,220 

TOTAL 23,064 1,162 

'Wetland Projects 

PHEASANT HUNTING AREAS 

Pheasants were released in good cover in numbers accord- 
ing to demand on five hunting units in Provincial Parks this 
year. In 1968, 3,049 man-days of pheasant hunting were 
enjoyed in the field. This program has provided hunting in 
areas where normally this recreational pastime would not 
occur since four of the five units are outside the native 
pheasant range. 

Of the 6,066 pheasants released at five Provincial Parks 
and the Gananoque Provincial Hunting Area, a limited num- 



375 

72 



188 

100 



43 



11 



PROVINCIAL PHEASANT HUNTING AREAS, 1968 



Sibbald Earl Point 

Presqu'ile Darlington Point Rowe Farms 



Hunting Area (acres) 

Hunters 

Pheasant Released 

Pheasants Released/Hunter . 

Pheasants Harvested 

Pheasants Harvested/Hunter 



415 
372 
708 

1.9 
552 

1.5 



380 

910 
1525 

1.7 
1337 

1.5 



450 

904 
1425 

1.6 
1263 

1.3 



425 

685 

1016 

1.5 
898 

1.3 



600 

178 

92 

.5 

78 

*.4 



*Bird/hunter low because of the experimental, limited release of pheasants at Point Farms Provincial Park this year. 



ber of pheasants were stocked in good cover at Tiny Marsh 
In Simcoe County and the Brighton property in Northum- 
berland County to provide opportunities to hunt pheasant 
outside its natural range. 

PROVINCIAL WATERFOWL 
HUNTING AREAS 

Five waterfowl management units within Provincial Parks 
were in operation again this year to provide the public with 
reasonably good hunting opportunities for ducks and geese. 

Only minor changes in the hunting regulations were in 
effect this year. For example, shooting hours at Long Point, 
Rondeau and Darlington were changed from 7:00 a.m. to 
5:00 p.m. to permit hunting only from one-half hour before 
sunrise to one hour before sunset. This earlier closing of 
the management unit permitted hunters leaving the marsh 
to do so before dark. 

PROVINCIAL WATERFOWL 
HUNTING AREAS, 1968 



Name of Area 



Acres 



Daily Permits Seasonal Permits 
Sold (Zone A) Sold (Zone B) 



Long Point 1,750 

Rondeau 9,200 

Darlington 380 

Presqu'ile 2,170 

Holiday Beach 262 



2,004 


121 


924 


304 


517 






517 




633 



Name of Area 



No. of Seasonal No. Waterfowl 
Hunters Checked Harvested 



Average Bag 
per Hunter 



Long Point . . . 

Rondeau 

Darlington . . . . 

Presquile 

Holiday Beach 



244 

188 



4,136 



1,419 

170 

1,131 

341 

736 



.7 

.7 

1.2 

1.8 

.2 



*Bird/hunter low because sportsmen are concentrating on harvest- 
ing Canada geese. 



WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT UNITS 
UNDER DEVELOPMENT 

Of the many land acquisition projects underway in Ontario 
for various purposes, 12 parcels of land, totalling 15,624 
acres, are being actively developed to meet wildlife needs 
of adequate food and cover. 

Aylmer Provincial Hunling Area, Elgin County. This 555-acre 
property was purchased from the Federal Department of 
National Defence in 1962. The Ontario Police College was 
established on 100 acres leaving 455 acres open to public 
hunting. The farmland was leased to local landowners who 
grew agricultural crops and kept the land under cultivation. 
In 1965 and 1968, small game management practices were 
started by constructing brushpiles for cottontail rabbits. 
Other habitat management techniques included planting 
650 wildlife shrubs and 25,000 evergreen trees as a three- 

Wlldlife Management Units Under Development 

1 . Fingal Airport, Elgin County. 

2. Aylmer Airport, Elgin County. 

3. Puslinch Tract, Waterloo County. 

4. Luther Marsh, Dufierin County. 

5. lohnston Harbour, Bruce County. 

6. Tiny Marsh, Simcoe County. 

7. Wye Marsh, Simcoe County. 

8. Holland Marsh, Simcoe County. 

9. Nangnon River, Ontario County. 
10. Brighton, Northumberland County, 
n. Cananoque, Leeds County. 

12. Winchester Bog, Dundas County. 



12 





UNITED STATES 



MAP OF 

SOUTHERN ONTARIO 

BY COUNTIES 

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT UNITS 

UNDER DEVELOPMENT 

(To identity Units, see facing page) 



13 



row windbreak on the perimeter of the property. 
Fingal Provincial Hunting Area, Elgin County. Purchased 
from the Federal government in 1965, this land is now 
being developed as a small game and waterfowl manage- 
ment area. A windbreak of 3,000 white cedar was planted in 
1965. Since that time, 4,100 wildlife shrubs have been 
planted to provide food and cover for wildlife. A few 
pheasants were released to add to the variety of game on 
the property. 

Puslinch Tract, Waterloo County. The parcels of land within 
the Puslinch Tract were transferred to this Department in 
1965 by the Department of Highways after construction of 
Highway 401 was completed. The Puslinch Tract is 500 acres 
of Crown land jointly owned by Departments of Lands and 
Forests and Highways. It is being developed and maintained 
as a small game and waterfowl management demonstration 
area with the specific purpose of establishing habitat suit- 
able for cottontail rabbit and ruffed grouse. Work com- 
pleted, in 1967 and 1968 included constructing brushpiles 
for rabbits, cutting openings in mature hardwood stands, 
planting food and cover shrubs and trees, and increasing 
production of natural food species (wild grape). 

Luther Marsh, Dufterin County. Most of the 920 acres in 
Crown ownership is located within the Crown Game Pre- 
serve at the north end of the marsh. The upland fields are 
being farmed to provide food crops for waterfowl. Man- 
agement for lure crops on Crown Land is necessary to 
attract field-feeding waterfowl away from private land grain 
crops and thus reduce the extent of the damage. Food, 
cover and hedgerow plantings of 5,000 evergreen trees and 
1,500 wildlife shrubs were completed in 1968. Also, fifteen 
potholes were constructed at the north end of the marsh 
using ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixture. These water areas 
will provide additional nesting territories for ducks, par- 
ticularly blue-winged teal. 

Johnston Harbour Provincial Hunting Area, Bruce County. 
Of the 4,200 acres of Crown Land in this hunting area, the 
largest concentration of Crown lots is located near Willow 
Creek, St. Edmunds Township. Fishing and small game and 
deer hunting are permitted. Several parking lots were built 
in 1968. 

Tiny Marsh Provincial Hunting Area, Simcoe County. Of the 
2,300 acres included in this wildlife management area, there 
are 1,300 acres flooded, 350 acres in brush, and 650 acres 
of farmland. Work on construction of permanent control 
dams, and a by-pass drainage ditch for regulation of water 
level in Tiny Marsh, was completed on November 22, 1968. 
Crops of barley, oats, corn, sorghum and buckwheat were 
planted to attract waterfowl into upland fields. With capital 
development funds, two parking lots, one goose pond, one 



observation tower, three information signs and one-half 
mile of internal road were constructed. Hedgerow devel- 
opment began with the planting of 1,500 wildlife shrubs. 
Wye Marsh, Simcoe County. At the present time, there are 
890 acres in Crown ownership; however, no major develop- 
ment is planned for this wetland until the existing marsh is 
acquired by the Province. Development in 1968 was limited 
to the construction of one-quarter mile of road, a parking 
lot and a boat launching area. 

Nonquon River Provincial Hunting Area, Ontario County. 
This river system in Reach Township which empties into 
Lake Scugog will be managed for waterfowl. Two dams 
will be built to create shallow water impoundments. At the 
moment, this project is still in the active land acquisition 
stage. Development in 1968 was limited to gravelling and 
grading three access roads to the edge of the wetland. 

Holland Marsh Provincial Hunting Area, Simcoe County. 
Approval to begin land purchase of this wetland was granted 
by the Ontario Parks Integration Board in 1968. Up to March, 
1968, 375 acres have been acquired. No habitat development 
was undertaken in 1968. 

Brighton Provincial Hunting Area, Northumberland County. 
In 1965, 553 acres along Highway 401 were transferred to 
this Department by the Department of Highways. Since 
then, an additional 147 acres has been acquired to make a 
larger, more manageable block of land for upland game 
hunting. Initial development on this area included con- 
structing one access road, one mile of fence and two ponds. 
Two larger fields were plowed for spring planting of per- 
manent wildlife cover. 

Cananoque Provincial Hunting Area, Leeds County. This 
1,041-acre tract has been a public hunting area since 1963. 
A cutting operation in a mixed hardwood stand was under- 
taken in 1968 to improve habitat for ruffed grouse, wood- 
cock and deer. Final plantings of 40,000 evergreen trees 
were made to provide winter shelter for grouse. In addition, 
3,000 hardwood species and 2,451 wildlife shrubs were 
planted in hedgerows to break up large fields into smaller 
units. Pheasant holding pens were constructed off the area. 
Twelve ponds were made to increase waterfowl use of this 
area. In 1968, 1,300 pheasants were released, and 1,011 were 
harvested by 1,391 hunters. The hunters also harvested 17 
ruffed grouse, 19 ducks, 9 woodcock, 1 Wilson snipe, 41 
cottontail rabbits and 5 varying hare, a total harvest of 1,103 
or 0.9 units of game per hunter. 

Winchester Bog Provincial Hunting Area, Dundas County. 
This 3,600-acre tract of land was purchased in 1962. Since 
that time, access roads have been constructed in part of 



14 



the area. Wildlife habitat improvement has been started 
through the planting of white spruce as a windbreak around 
some of the fields in the south section of the property. 

FUR MANAGEMENT 

The objective of the fur management program in Ontario is 
to provide for an annual optimum harvest while ensuring 
the continued propagation of furbearer species throughout 
their respective ranges. 

Strong market demand for wild fur pelts of all species 
during the 1968-9 season resulted in one of the most profit- 
able seasons for trappers in a number of years. Harvest and 
price increases were reported on all species over the pre- 
vious year. 

Based on data obtained from the Ontario Trappers' Asso- 
ciation fur sales service in North Bay, beaver, the major 
species in the wild fur harvest in Ontario, was in strong de- 
mand, resulting in an average price increase over 1967-8 of 
S3. 50. Beaver production totalled 164,888 pelts at an esti- 
mated value of $3,325,000.00 to the Province's 8,049 li- 
censed trappers. 

Mink populations and harvests, which have been declin- 
ing generally across the Province for the past eight years, 
increased significantly. There was a harvest of 28,464 ani- 
mals, an increase of approximately 7,000 over the previous 
year. Sioux Lookout and Kenora were the only Districts In 
the Province reporting a slight decline in the harvest of this 
species. 

The average price paid for fisher increased from approxi- 
mately $13.81 in 1967-8 to $25.45 with a harvest increase 
of approximately 30%, from 2,189 to 3,536 animals. 

In spite of the increased prices paid, particularly for 
beaver, areas continue to exist where the harvest is far be- 
low the existing potential. The Department moves efficient 
trappers into such sites from areas of lower production 
potential. This program has proven to be most beneficial to 
the trappers concerned and aids in the management of the 
species in that it maintains populations at levels compatible 
with the existing range. 

No major disease outbreaks occurred in wild furbearers 
during the year. 

Beaver continue to create flooding problems in some 
agriculture areas and cottage development sites, as well as 
along roadways in the sparsely settled areas of the Province. 
In an effort to alleviate the situation, intensive harvest prac- 
tices are encouraged where these conditions exist. 



During the fur season of 1968-9, royalty in the amount of 
$215,102.55 was collected on a total of 686,296 pelts. The 
value of the pelts was $4,161,541.00, an increase of 
$813,168.00 over the previous season, covering a total of 
705,943 pelts. A strong European market brought about the 
higher prices. 

With the Ontario Trappers' Association fur sales serx'ice 
in North Bay now handling approximately 50 per cent of 
the wild pelts produced in Ontario, buyers from the United 
States, Europe and Quebec are being attracted, and the 
trappers are benefitting from strong, competitive bidding. 

A total of 289 Fur Dealer's Licences were issued; of these, 
219 were Resident Fur Dealer's Store Licences, 66 were 
Resident Travelling Fur Dealer's Licences, and four were 
Non-Resident Fur Dealer's Licences. 

PREDATOR MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 

The function of the predator control unit is to assess the 
degree of depredation caused by wildfire predators. It also 
implements control programs in areas where it has been 

determined that their presence is detrimental to the domes- 
tic livestock industry or to maintaining desirable population 
levels of other wildlife species. 

Department staff investigated 79 instances of predation 
on domestic and wildlife prey species. A total of 54 control 
programs were established. Farmers, who experienced de- 
predation on domestic stock by wildlife predators, were 
assisted by Department officers in establishing control pro- 
grams. As a result of these programs, 27 timber wolves, 40 
coyotes, six bears and 12 dogs were removed from the 
problem areas. 

Predator control training courses were conducted in the 
forest districts of Tweed, Kapuskasing, Fort Frances, Kenora, 
Sioux Lookout, Cochrane, Swastika, Sudbury, Lake Erie and 
Lake Huron. Fifty-six Department employees received on- 
the-job training. Extension training workshops, held in con- 
junction with these programs, were attended by 323 trappers 
and farmers. 

During 1968, a total of 1,567 timber wolves, 1,643 coy- 
otes and 29 hybrids were bountied in the Province. There 
was no appreciable change in the number of timber wolves 
bountied, compared with 1967; coyotes increased by 284 
animals. There has been a gradual increase in the number 
of coyotes bountied since 1962. A similar increase occurred 
between 1943 and 1947 when they reached a peak of 1,182 
animals and then decreased to 486, bountied in 1957. 

Payment of bounty claims amounted to $62,025.00 dur- 
ing the fiscal year, compared with $59,089.00 in the preced- 
ing year. 



15 



FUR FARMING 

The 1968 Canadian ranch mink pelt market opened with a 
spirited demand for dark and pastel types. The depletion of 
the supply of these two types (in the fall) stimulated the 
bidding at the early December sales which saw dark mink 
advance from 10 to 15 per cent and pastels from 15 to 20 
per cent over 1967 prices. 

While the demand for the lighter shades of mink was 
good, it was obvious that the trade was not prepared to ex- 
ceed the price levels established last year. Sapphires were 
unchanged but pearls, violets, lavenders, hopes, Aleutians 
and whites showed declines of from five to fifteen per cent. 
These conditions prevailed through the January, February 
and March sales with slight price increases for darks and 
pastels and a firming of the demand for Aleutian and violet 
mink. 

The Canadian sales were well attended with Canadian, 
American, West German and Italian buyers taking the bulk 
of the offerings. It was estimated that 95 per cent of the 
Canadian ranch mink crop was sold by the end of February. 
The reduction of the world ranch-mink crop by some four 
million pelts failed to produce the strong market for all 
types that was anticipated. 

The depressed mink pelt market which prevailed in 1967- 
8, together with the high costs of production, particularly 
for labour, caused 74 Ontario mink ranchers to discontinue 
business. This represented a net decrease of 10,514 breeder 
mink which were actually pelted, or a 4.4 per cent decrease 
In the number of breeders kept as of January 1, 1967. 
Breeder mink, which were sold alive to other Ontario 
ranchers, were subtracted, thereby making this the net total 
decrease from ranchers discontinuing business. 

For economic reasons and with a desire to reduce the 
overall production of mink pelts, the number of breeders 
kept on ranches in Ontario was reduced from 234,369 as 
of January 1, 1967, to 208,570 as of December 31, 1968, a 
decrease of 11 per cent. This reduction in breeding stock 
resulted in some 63,000 fewer mink pelts produced in the 
Province in 1968. 

The 1968-9 season saw the new jet mink offered in size- 
able quantities on the New York market. While the top 
bundle brought $270.00 per pelt, the offering was not up 
to expectations and for the most part brought less than fine- 
quality darks. It was indicated that the colour was dark 
enough but the fur quality was lacking. 

The new Kojah mink, a long-haired mutation, was intro- 
duced to the New York market for the first time and 
brought an average price of $114.00 per male and $68.00 
per female. The promoters of this new type have hopes that 



it will rival the Russian sable in popularity. 

There was an upsurge in the demand for fox pelts as well 
as all long-haired wild furs. Large quantities of these types 
are being consumed by the trimming trade and in the manu- 
facture of "fun" furs and sportswear. 

Arrangements were made with a number of Ontario fox 
ranchers for the purchase of live foxes by Connaught Medi- 
cal Research Laboratories to be used in experimental work. 
It is hoped that an oral vaccine for rabies in wildlife may 
be developed. 

A total of 417 Fur Farmers' Licences were issued during 
the year. Of these, 404 were renewals and 13 were for 
newly established fur farms. 

FIELD SERVICES 

This unit is responsible for fish and game law enforcement 
programs and for providing in-service training opportuni- 
ties for conservation officers and other Department staff 
charged with the enforcement of various statutes and regu- 
lations. In addition, records of seizures and convictions are 
maintained, and equipment seized as evidence is disposed 
of according to statute. Records of sales of hunting and 
fishing licences are now filed in a central licence registry to 
be used to solve both management and enforcement prob- 
lems. The provincial hunting licence examination program 
is also a responsibility of this unit and through it an evalu- 
ation of the results of hunter safety training programs in 
reducing hunting accidents. 

LAW ENFORCEMENT 

The objective of fish and game law enforcement is to pre- 
vent violations. To ensure good fish and wildlife manage- 
ment, the public must be impressed with the need to obey 
the regulations. Where education and publicity programs 
fail, prosecution is necessary, and high standards of law en- 
forcement are essential to successful prosecution. Through 
in-service law enforcement training courses, officers have 
become increasingly skilled and knowledgeable in han- 
dling their cases in court, and a lower rate of dismissals has 
been experienced. 

Legislation and regulations provided under The Game 
and Fish Act, 1961-62, have been consolidated in summary 
form for public distribution with maps and explanations in 
simple terms. A Big Came Provisional Summary of seasons 
was provided in January as an aid to hunters who must set 
their vacation schedules in advance and to assist the tourist 
operator in preparing his brochures and accommodation 
arrangements. 



16 



A total of 900,000 copies of the regular hunting summary 
of the seasons and regulations for all species is published. 
This is sufficient for a copy to be issued with each hunting 
licence sold. 

Consolidated office copies of The Came and Fish Act, 
1961-62, and the Ontario Fishery Regulations are provided 
annually for use by conservation officers, other staff, law- 
yers, courts and the public. 

Articles seized as evidence under The Came and Fish 
Act become the property of the Crown upon conviction. 
The Minister may grant relief from forfeiture where he con- 
siders the forfeiture would work undue hardship or injus- 
tice. Relief may be granted under conditions which he 
deems to be proper and just. Equipment retained is sold by 
public auction at annual sales. Two sales are held in north- 
ern Ontario and two in southern Ontario for fishing tackle 
each spring, and similarly in the fall for seized guns. The 
locations are changed annually. In the past year, $20,384 was 
turned into the Provincial Treasury from these sales. 

The training of conservation officers and others con- 
cerned with the enforcement of provincial and federal stat- 
utes is continuing, with a total of seventy-eight officers and 
other personnel receiving in-service training during the year. 

HUNTING LICENCE EXAMINATIONS 

The hunting licence examination has just experienced its 
first full year of operation, and in consideration of this 
being the first such program on the North American con- 
tinent with few guide lines to follow, it was considered to 
be very successful. Some 22,474 persons applied for and 
took a hunting licence examination in 21 Forest Districts, 
as follows: 

Lake Erie 3,178 

Lake Huron 3,262 

Lake Simcoe 5,120 

Lindsay 702 

Tweed 1 ,201 

Kemptville 1,550 

Pembroke 452 

Parry Sound 400 

North Bay 574 

Sudbury 1,163 

Sault Ste Marie 895 

White River , 215 

Chapleau 121 

Swastika 310 

Cochrane 503 

Kapuskasing 294 

Ceraldton 125 

Port Arthur 1 ,448 

Fort Frances 321 



Kenora 384 

Sioux Lookout 256 

TOTAL 22,474 

Failure rates were highest in the south with some 23 per 
cent of the applicants failing to qualify. Northern Ontario 
had a much lower failure rate of 13 percent producing a pro- 
vincial average of 21 per cent. Seventy-five per cent of the 
applicants were from southern Ontario. Continued evalua- 
tion of the licence examination program, in co-ordination 
with improved hunter safety training instruction, is the best 
means of increasing the percentage of successful applicants, 
thereby reducing the number of hunting accidents. 

The Province of Ontario experienced its lowest number 
of hunting accidents (96) in the past fiscal year since the 
program was initiated. 

SEIZURES AND CONVICTIONS 

The Seizures and Convictions unit provides records for 
comparative purposes. A total of 3,674 violations were en- 
countered during the fiscal year. This is the highest num- 
ber on record for one year. The increase in violations 
reported has not kept pace with the great increase in 
hunters and anglers. There was a decrease in violations in 
the late 1950s and early 1960s. However, this decline has 
now been reversed, and violations and the numbers of 
people using the resource are following almost parallel 
courses. 

CENTRAL LICENCE BUREAU 

This Bureau was set up in 1968 to provide a registry for all 
hunters and fishermen in Ontario. It is hoped that this cen- 
tral file will facilitate an annual survey of sportsmen in 
Ontario and thereby give a sound basis for the manage- 
ment of fish and wildlife resources. 

A central registry will provide a check on hunters, to 
make sure that only the legal number of licences are pur- 
chased in one season, and also to check that additional 
licences are not purchased once the privileges of a person 
have been revoked through an order of a provincial judge 
due to conviction for an offence. 

The Bureau will serve the public by fulfilling requests for 
copies of lost licences. Through the "identification badge" 
number system, landowners can enquire as to the holders of 
certain hunting licences; thus, sportsmen-landowner rela- 
tionships are improved. 

At present, the filing system is basically manual, but it is 
in the process of being converted to an automated one 
whereby all licence information is filed by electronic 
computer. 



17 



SEIZURES AND CONVICTIONS 

1964-5 1965-6 1966-7 1967-8 1968-9 



Number of Seizures 2,216 

Number of Convictions 2,236 

Cases Dismissed 95 



2,581 


2,942 


3,404 


3,557 


2,347 


2,626 


3,239 


3,489 


64 


93 


105 


183 



WITHOUT A LICENCE (CONVICTIONS) 

Activity 



1964-5 1965-6 1966-7 1967-8 1968-9 

No. 7o No. 7o No. 7o No. °/o No. 7o 

Frequency Frequency Frequency Frequency Frequency 



Fishing without licence 145 6.6 106 4.6 204 71 178 14.9 237 6.5 

Hunting without licence 439 19.6 360 15.3 443 15.9 467 23.1 589 16.0 

Trapping without licence . 19 0.9 6 0.2 5 1.2 14 41.1 32 0.87 

TOTAL 603 27.1 472 20.1 652 24.8 659 20.3 858 23.37 



VIOLATIONS, 1968-9 



1. Angling with more than two lines 257 

2. Possession of overlimit of fish 266 

3. Taking fish by means other than angling 168 

4. Taking fish during closed season 162 

5. Possession of fish during closed season 31 

6. Possession of spear 93 

7. Miscellaneous, including fishing without licence 296 

Total, Fishing Violations 1,273 

1. Possession of loaded firearms in vehicle 471 

2. Hunting during prohibited hours and jacklighting 323 

3. Possession of loaded firearms in motor boat 132 

4. Hunting in closed season 76 

5. Possession of game in closed season 38 

6. Hunting protected birds 50 

7. Miscellaneous, including hunting or trapping without licence 422 

8. Careless Hunting 31 

Total, Hunting Violations 1,543 

Total, Violations 3,674 



18 



FISHERIES SECTION 

Fisheries Section is responsible tor the application of the 
principles of full, multiple and public use on a sustained 
yield basis to the fishery resources of the Province. The ap- 
plication of these principles involves an understanding of 
the resources and the organization of programs for their 
optimum harvest. 

SPORT FISH AND HATCHERIES 

Ontario is blessed with countless lakes, ponds, rivers and 
streams with great variation in productivity, fish species, 
ease of access, and in fishing pressure. The management, 
development and promotion of the sports fishery in these 
areas are the responsibilities of the Unit. To accomplish 
these objectives in conjunction with field staff, Unit per- 
sonnel are involved in the planning and co-ordination of 
programs to assess the fishery and its degree of utilization 
by anglers; to determine the effectiveness of fish plantings; 
to establish angling seasons and regulations and to test their 
validity; to initiate habitat improvement projects, including 
lake reclamation and stream improvement; to study fish- 
eries problems and to evaluate remedial action; to provide 
public access to natural waters and to acquire and develop 
public fishing areas; and to dispense information and pro- 
mote the sports fishery. 

The operation of an extensive system of fish hatcheries is 
an important part of fish management in Ontario. Produc- 
tion and distribution of fish stocks, modernization of the 
hatchery system, and the application of new fish cultural 
techniques are involved in the program. 

ANGLING REGULATIONS AND SUMMARY 

The trend toward more lengthy open seasons was evident 
in 1968. Opening date for brook and brown trout fishing 
was advanced to January 1st in 13 Divisfons in which the 
opening date had previously been the last Saturday in 
February. Brook trout angling in these Divisions is predomi- 
nantly a lake fishery and is maintained to a large degree 
by the planting of hatchery reared fish. Division 16 (Parry 
Sound) and Divisions 13 and 14 (Algonquin Provincial Park) 
were not included in this amendment. 

Division 7 was amended to include the County of Hast- 
ings, and this change gave the County a lake trout season 
beginning January 1st. Uniformity in opening dates for lake 
trout fishing in Haliburton and Hastings Counties, and the 
northern portion of Peterborough County, was thus 
achieved. 



The southern boundary of Division 25 in northeastern 
Ontario was extended southward to the C.N.R. in the Ter- 
ritorial District of Cochrane. This amendment enlarged Divi- 
sion 25 considerably and provided an all-year open season 
on all fish species inhabiting this relatively inaccessible and 
unexploited area. 

The boundary waters between the Province of Ontario 
and the Province of Quebec were grouped together in Divi- 
sion 12, and this constituted the first step in establishing 
uniform angling regulations for such areas. The waters in 
question are Lake Timiskaming, the Ottawa River and Lake 
St. Francis. 

It was also established on a permissive basis that residents 
of Quebec were deemed to be residents of Ontario when 
angling in the waters of Division 12. 

The Summary was enlarged by one panel and fold. The 
map of northern Ontario was enlarged by 1.5 and placed 
on the reverse side. 

Schedule 19, a new schedule, was established in the On- 
tario Fishery Regulations with reference to Public Fishing 
Areas in which the daily catch limit of brook and rainbow 
trout, in any combination, shall not exceed five fish. In 
1968, four of these pond areas, i.e. Mount Pleasant, St. 
Williams, School House and Nine Mile Quarry, were estab- 
lished as Public Fishing Areas and managed intensively by 
the Department to provide public fishing for brook trout 
and rainbow trout. 

LICENCES 

Significant changes were made in the licensing fee struc- 
ture during the fiscal year ending March 31, 1969. Effective 
January 1, 1969, a resident angling licence at $3.00 was 
established for males only, nineteen years of age or over. 
At much the same time, two current licences, Resident Pro- 
vincial Park and Resident Provincial Park Organized Camp, 
were discontinued as of December 31, 1968. Non-resident 
fees for the seasonal and 3-day licences were increased to 
S8.50 and $4.00, respectively, for 1969. 

The sales of non-resident seasonal licences increased 
sharply in 1968 by eight per cent, and the 3-day licences by 
3.2 per cent. A substantial increase of 13.6 per cent in the 
total licence revenue was realized. Of this, slightly less than 
half was due to the sales of resident licences during the 
last three months of the fiscal year. 

Sales of domestic or sport fishing licences declined in 
1968 with the exception of the domestic dip-net licence 
which increased from 425 in 1967 to 826. 

EXTENSION BIOLOGISTS 

The development and utilization of a significant part of the 



19 



fisheries resource in southern Ontario are influenced by 
land ownership. Our affluent society has given rise to 
changes in land ownership patterns, and the use of many 
rural properties has changed from agriculture to recreation. 
In the development field, which includes the construction 
and management of pond areas for fish, and stream man- 
agement, there is an increasing need for professional advice 
and assistance on the part of new land owners. At the same 
time, the need for maintaining, developing and promoting 
public fishing by the preservation of habitat, land acquisi- 
tion and construction, is ever increasing. The provision of 
public access to natural waters in heavily populated areas is 
also important and should be included in any modern 
management plan. 

To initiate these programs and to provide a public ser- 
vice, an extension biologist was appointed to the Lake 
Huron district and one to the Lake Simcoe district in 1968. 
A Head Office position in the extension field was also ac- 
quired in 1968 but was not filled on a permanent basis. 

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT UNITS 

These Units, each consisting of a biologist and a potential 
staff of one Fisheries Management Officer and several sum- 
mer students, are established on large, important water 
areas to ensure that fisheries matters are adequately cov- 
ered. They constitute an addition to district staff, but with 
more confined responsibility. 

In 1968, new Units were established on Lake St. Clair 
and Lake Nipigon. The biologists, so appointed, spent the 
remainder of the fiscal year in becoming thoroughly orien- 
ted with the resource and its problems, and in the perusal 
of available data and reports. 

Rainy Lake. This Unit was established in 1965, at which time 
a basic program of applied research and investigation was 
prepared and initiated. The program consists of seven sepa- 
rate, yet integral, projects as follows: studies of yellow pick- 
erel spawning stock; egg abundance and viability; abun- 
dance of yellow pickerel fingerlings and forage species; test 
netting; sampling of commercial catch; creel census work; 
and the collection of limnological data on Rainy Lake. Vari- 
ous aspects of the work ha\'e been carried out in the North 
Arm, Red Cut Bay and the East Arm. In addition to the yearly 
monitoring of the Rainy Lake fishery, the basic aim of these 
investigations is to determine the cause of fluctuations in 
yellow pickerel spawing success and the reproductive poten- 
tial of the species in Rainy Lake. The abundance of fingerling 
yellow pickerel in 1968 approximated 400 per acre, which 
exceeded the 1967 abundance index of 331 per acre. An 
extensive creel census of the lower half of the North Arm 
revealed that anglers caught approximately 3,315 pounds of 
yellow pickerel at a rate of 0.2 fish per man-hour. Relatively 
light fishing pressure. 0.36 man-hours per acre, was indi- 



cated, and 64 per cent of the anglers were non-residents. 

Timagami-Nipissing. An intensive creel census study, winter 
and summer, was continued on Lake Timagami in 1968. 
From these data, it was estimated that the lake provided 
86,197 man-hours of fishing, and that the harvest consisted 
of 5,947 lake trout, 2,666 yellow pickerel, 520 smallmouth 
bass, 47 pike and 1,586 whitefish. The planting of marked 
lake trout yearlings appears to be of little benefit to the 
Lake Timagami fishery. Since 1961, 72,500 marked trout have 
been planted, and only seven recaptures have been re- 
corded. Future plantings, accompanied by a more intensive 
follow-up, will be made on an alternate-year basis until 
1977. A yellow pickerel tagging project was conducted at 
Wasi Falls in Callandar Bay of Lake Nipissing during the 
spring of 1968. Four hundred and six yellow pickerel were 
measured, sexed, scale sampled, fin clipped, tagged and 
released. Forty-seven of these fish were recovered by anglers 
during the spring and summer fishing season, indicating an 
angling mortality of 11.5 per cent. During the fall, an addi- 
tional 159 yellow pickerel were tagged in Callandar Bay by 
the use of a trap net. A preliminary creel census and a boat 
count from aircraft were carried out. Some fish sampling and 
water quality analyses were also done. 

Kawartha Lakes. A three-year study of the Rice Lake fishery 
was completed by this Unit in 1968. A large part of the work 
program consisted of netting, tagging and release of sport 
fish and the making of a creel census record. During the two 
and one-half months of netting in 1968, mid-April to the end 
of June, three sizes ot impounding gear were used at ten 
different sites. The following numbers of sport fish were 
handled during the netting period: yellow pickerel, 1,986; 
largemouth bass, 1,526; smallmouth bass, 206; and maskin- 
onge, 43. 

Lake of the Woods. Fisheries work on Lake of the Woods in 
1968 was primarily concerned with yellow pickerel, the most 
important species. A total of 1,021 yellow pickerel were 
tagged in the north sector of the lake at four locations. By 
the end of 1968, recaptures totalled 102, or 10 per cent, and 
of these, 80 per cent were caught by anglers and approxi- 
mately 14 per cent by commercial fishermen. Routine sam- 
pling of the commercial fishery provided comparative data 
on the harvest of \ellow pickerel taken in gill nets and trap 
nets. It was noted that yellow pickerel taken in gill nets 
averaged 17.1 inches in length, while those from trap nets 
averaged 15.1 inches. Many of the latter were immature fish. 
The routine creel censes on Lake of the Woods during 1968 
showed a total success figure of 0.69 fish per man-hour of 
angling. Over 80 per cent of this catch consisted of yellow 
pickerel. The production of fingerling \ellow pickerel was 
sampled by seine hauls during the month of August. On 



20 




Pbnli 



) earling splake in Georgian Bay near Meaford. 



overcast days, 7.5 young yellow pickerel per lift were cap- 
tured during 20 seine hauls. 

Bay of Quinte and Eastern Lake Ontario. The program 
initiated in 1967 was continued in 1968. A creel census of 
the sport fishery in the Bay of Quinte was conducted by the 
Unit, together with the monitoring of some commercial fish 
stocks. Angling success in the western end of the Bay of 
Quinte was found to be fairly stable and much better than 
that experienced elsewhere. Reasons for the declining 
fishery in the remainder of the Bay have not as yet been 
determined. During the summer of 1968, the biologist-in- 
charge of the Unit actively participated in a program of 
experimental trawling in Lake Ontario. 

Lake Simcoe. Studies on whitefish, smallmoulh bass and 
yellow pickerel were continued in 1968. A whitefish tagging 
project, to determine the movements and distribution of 
the species and its relative abundance, was initiated in 1964. 
In the six years of operation, a total of 3,389 whitefish has 
been tagged and, of these, some 1,534 were tagged during 
the fall of 1968. Tag returns to date amount to 5.7 percent 
of the tagged fish. Smallmouth bass studies are being con- 
ducted in specific areas to determine the strength of spawn- 
ing populations, the average size of brood stock, and the 



dispersal of lake and river spawners after spawning has been 
completed. The major work in 1968 was confined to the 
Pefferlaw River and entailed a netting and tagging project 
in co-operation with the University of Cuelph, School of 
Graduate Studies. A total of 735 smallmouth bass was tagged 
and returns to date indicate a 5.8 percent recovery of tagged 
fish. Large numbers of spawning yellow pickerel are olsser- 
ved each spring in the Talbot River, but little is known of 
their habits at other times of the year. In an effort to obtain 
such information, experimental netting with trap nets was 
conducted during the summer of 1968. Various sets were 
made in the vicinity of the Pefferlaw and Beaverton Rivers, 
the Virginia Beach area and on Trout Shoal. Ninety-seven 
yellow pickerel were tagged, and it was apparent that the 
waters on the south side of Ceorgina Island provided good 
summer habitat for yellow pickerel. 

SPECIAL PROJECTS 

Long Term Yellow Pickerel Study. This study was initiated in 
1961 in Tweed Forest District. The purpose is to determine if 
the quality of yellow pickerel fishing in small lakes can be 
increased by stocking when natural reproduction is low. 
Four lakes are involved in the study: Mississagagon, Kash- 
wakamak, Plevna and Big Cedar. Stocking history and sub- 
sequent fishing quality has been tabulated for the four 
study areas. Analysis of the Mississagagon data showed a 
good relationship between fingerling stocking and subse- 
quent fishing quality. Progress reports were submitted in 
1965 and 1968. 

Lake Reclamation. Introductions of brook and rainbow trout 
to suitable small lakes and ponds have contributed much to 
the sport fishery in recent years. Such fisheries, however, 
are largely dependent upon hatcheries for replenishment 
and will not stand competition from species such as perch, 
bass, yellow pickerel and pike. Also, large populations of 
coarse fish or minnow species will greatly reduce the pro- 
ductivity of trout in small water areas. When a lake or pond 
is otherwise suited for trout, it is considered good manage- 
ment to reclaim the waters for this species by applying a fish 
toxicant. The treatment is generally made in the fall, and the 
lake is subsequently planted with trout species in the spring. 
The following are examples of lakes reclaimed for trout in 
1968: Lovells Lake, McCart Township, District of Cochrane; 
Mason Lake, Buchanan Township, Renfrew County; Porter 
Lake, Westmeath Township, Renfrew County; and High 
Lake, Loughborough Township, Frontenac County. 

Sturgeon Lake. Located in Sioux Lookout Forest District, this 
lake is subjected to both angling and commercial fishing. 
Improved access by road in recent years has increased tour- 
ism in the area and further compounded the problems. 
Studies in 1968 marked the end of a three-year program to 



21 



determine the effect of combined angler and commercial 
fishing pressure on yellow pickerel and lake trout, the most 
Important species. Creel census work in 1968 was intensified 
to provide better estimates of total harvest, and trap nets 
were operated to determine if significant changes had 
occurred in the yellow pickerel population since the 1965-6 
survey. On a lake-wide basis, the abundance of yellow pick- 
erel had not declined but more younger, smaller, faster- 
growing fish with decreasing natural mortalities were noted. 
A summary of the work on Sturgeon Lake indicated that 
yellow pickerel and lake trout were under considerable 
fishing pressure. On this basis, some adjustment of com- 
mercial quotas was made. 

Lac Seul. This large lake in Sioux Lookout Forest District has 
been a hydro reservoir of some 500 square miles since 1929 
when the dam was built. The amount of water storage and 
subsequent draw-down approximates 14-16 feet annually. 
Ten tourist camps and thirteen commercial fishing opera- 
tions are located on the lake, and it has been hypothesized 
that fluctuating water levels are limiting fish production. To 
investigate this possibility, a biologist and two students were 
assigned to work on Lac Seul during the summer of 1968. 
Past records of commercial fishing activity were examined, 
and comparisons made with more recent harvest statistics. 
The trend appears to be downward, but the cause is not as 
yet clear. In the summer of 1968, sounding and water sam- 
pling of the basin were initiated to provide data on the po- 
tential productivity of the lake. Approximately 50 per cent of 
the required work was completed in 1968 and the program 
will continue. 

Bark Lake. This long-term project was initiated in 1965 in 
Pembroke Forest District to determine the effect of the 
extensive winter drawdown on the natural reproduction of 
lake trout. To date, approximately 500 adult lake trout have 
been tagged, and some interesting recaptures recorded. 
Also, 60,000 marked lake trout yearlings have been stocked 
to determine the contribution made to the fishery as com- 
pared to that of natural reproduction in years of severe water 
fluctuation. In 1968, an effort was made to determine the 
incubation period of lake trout eggs under natural condi- 
tions In Bark Lake. Fertilized eggs were placed in screened 
boxes in the lake on October 12th, and it was discovered 
that 30 per cent of the eggs had hatched by December 5th. 
This indicated that the minimum incubation period approxi- 
mated 55 davs. The work will be continued to establish an 
average incubation period for lake trout in Bark Lake. The 
project Is expected to continue until 1975. 

Georgian Bay. The site of the Georgian Bay yellow pickerel 
study was moved from the Shawanaga basin to the Moon 
River area in the spring of 1968. Trap-netting operations 



22 



were carried on from April 23 to May 21 and again in the 
summer from August 1 to August 30. A total of 4,440 yellow 
pickerel was captured. Preliminary estimates indicate a 
spawning population of approximatelv 21.000 fish. It is ap- 
parent from tag returns that a relatively widespread popu- 
lation of yellow pickerel utilize the Moon River spawning 
site, and there is the possibility that two discrete populations 
are present. Creel census studies continued at the Moon 
River and Shawanaga sites. Movements of yellow pickerel 
from the latter, as evidenced by tag returns, showed that they 
concur with those of previous years. 

Ouananiche (Atlantic Salmon) Fishery, Trout Lake. During 
1968, a decision was made to take action to preserve and 
support this attractive fishery in North Bay Forest District. 
Preliminary steps were taken to acquire the land along the 
lower reaches of Four Mile Creek to prevent a proposed 
development which would destroy spawning areas. Thirty- 
six acres were purchased in the spring of 1969. 

36-inch maskinonge taken at Balsam Lake, Lindsay Forest 
District. 




PUBLIC FISHING AREAS 

in 1968, eight pond areas were operated under intensive 
management to provide public fishing tor brook and rain- 
bow trout adjacent to population centres in southern 
Ontario. 

The Nine Mile Road Quarry Pond near Cornwall was a 
most welcome addition to the public fishing areas in 1968. 
During its first year of operation, it provided an estimated 
5,707 anglers with 10,227 angler-hours of fishing and a catch 
of 4,714 brook trout. 

The Mount Pleasant Public Fishing Area continued to be 
most popular. During its fifth year of operation, it was 
visited by 35,128 anglers who spent a total of 93,879 angler- 
hours to catch 30,824 trout, of which 7,547 were rainbow 
trout and 23,277 were brook trout. 

NETTING CREWS 

The use of impounding gear (trap, pound and hoop nets) is 
becoming increasingly important in fisheries studies where 
it is imperative that fish be captured and released unharmed 
for further study. This type of gear is also gaining favour 
with commercial fishermen who appreciate the better 
quality of fish so captured and the ease with which un- 
wanted or illegal species can be released. Department net- 
ting crews stationed at Maple and Port Arthur provide (by 
construction and repair) various types and sizes of impound- 
ing gear for projects in the field. The netting crews assist 
district personnel in routine projects and, in specific cases 
where large nets and special gear are required for deep 
water fishing, they actually set and operate the equipment. 
Demonstrations of fishing with impounding gear are also 
made for the benefit of commercial fishermen. 

Numerous species of live fish were provided for display 
at the Canadian National Exhibition and the Sportsmen's 
Show in 1968 by the staff at Maple, and they also partici- 
pated in the collection of lake trout and yellow pickerel eggs 
for hatchery purposes. Field staff in the forest districts of 
Lindsay, Parry Sound and Lake Erie were assisted in specific 
netting projects. 

In 1968, the Port Arthur staff assisted in the collection of 
lake trout eggs in the White River district and also partici- 
pated in fish surveys, fish tagging and fish transfer projects 
in various districts in northwestern Ontario. Demonstrations 
on the use of impounding gear for the benefit of commercial 
fishermen were conducted on Lake of the Woods. 

WATER QUALITY AND PESTICIDE STUDIES 

During 1968, the Department of Lands and Forests, in co- 
operation with the Ontario Water Resources Commission, 
continued its efforts to detect and reduce water pollution 



in the province. One of the major programs was a province- 
wide pesticide monitoring study on 42 selected waters to 
determine the level of pesticides in various fish species. 

The Department is also attempting to ensure proper gar- 
bage disposal by winter fishermen. During the winter of 
1968-9, plastic litter bags were issued to ice fishermen in 
selected areas to determine if this action would reduce 
littering. The results were encouraging, and the program 
will be expanded in the future. 

PROVINCIAL FISH HATCHERIES 

The artificial culture of fish is the oldest and one of the most 
important methods of increasing fish production for both 
food and recreational purposes. It is, however, only one of 
several important management tools in common use by 
modern fisheries management. However, as with any tool, 
its improper application negates its potential usefulness. 
Ontario's long-term policies in this regard are designed to 
guide us toward the production of hatchery fish on an 
economical basis, to sustain, improve, and expand our 
fisheries for public use. 

The evaluation of existing natural fish popLilations and 
the survival of hatchery reared fish is most important in the 
determination of suitable waters to be planted. To facilitate 
this assessment and the recognition of hatchery fish from 
wild stocks, a policy has been established to mark all 
hatchery fish for identification purposes. Marking is gener- 
ally accomplished by the removal of one or more fins. 

Research studies, on the survival of hatchery fish follow- 
ing air-drop plantings in small inland waters, indicates 
lower survival compared with those planted at the water 
surface. Helicopter plantings of hatchery fish are therefore 
being investigated for those waters on which fixed-wing 
aircraft are unable to land. 

Fourteen hatcheries in twelve forest districts operated 
during 1968. North Bay hatchery was closed during the re- 
construction and renovation of facilities. 

Official openings of the Normandale hatchery in the Lake 
Erie district and the six large, earthen, splake rearing ponds 
at Chatsworth, Lake Huron district, were held in June and 
October, respectively. 

Fifteen Department employees attended the three-week 
fisheries management course given each year at the Univer- 
sity of Guelph. This course was designed to upgrade and 
familiarize our staff with current work in fisheries manage- 
ment. 

Twelve species of fish were cultured in Provincial hatch- 
eries during 1968. The culture of maskinonge, largemouth 



23 



and smallmouth bass, and brook, rainbow and lake trout 
was carried out to the maximum capacity of our hatcheries. 

Attempts to culture aurora trout under artificial condi- 
tions, at both Dorion and Hill Lake hatcheries, have been 
disappointing to date. 

The hybrid splake, developed for the rehabilitation of 
Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, have reached the production 
stage. One hundred thousand splake fry were donated to 
Michigan for rearing and ultimate release in the American 
waters of Lake Huron. Thirty-thousand large yearlings, 
reared at Chatsworth hatchery, were released in the Mea- 
ford shoals area of Georgian Bay during the spring of 1969. 
This was the initial production planting. Though relatively 
small in numbers, survival was excellent, and conditions for 
natural reproduction appear optimum. Ontario's commit- 
ment to the rehabilitation of the Lake Huron waters is one- 
half million splake yearlings annually. 

Kokanee were reared from eggs received from Colorado 
and Montana in the continuing project to establish a breed- 
ing population in the Great Lakes. Mature kokanee, which 
returned to their original planting site at Oxenden Creek, 
near Wiarton, were artificially spawned. The eggs were 
found to be viable, indicating that natural production in 
Great Lakes waters was a reality. The establishment of this 
species in Lake Ontario has been less successful than that 
in Georgian Bay and Lake Huron waters. The kokanee proj- 
ect has been curtailed for the last two years because of 
spawning-run failures in British Columbia. A large propor- 
tion of our introductory spawn comes from this source on 
an exchange basis for brook trout eggs. 

Coho salmon, from Lake Michigan, were reared at Chats- 
worth hatchery and released as smolts in 1969. Waters 
planted included Bronte Creek, the Humber and Credit 
Rivers in the western basin of Lake Ontario, and the Gravel 
and Jackpine Rivers of Nipigon Bay, Lake Superior. Coho 
salmon eggs were spawned by Department personnel in 
Michigan and transported to Chatsworth hatchery for cul- 
ture. This is the second lot of coho cultured in Ontario, and 
though experimental in nature, the program is being con- 
tinued to assess the contribution of this species to the 
fishery in the western basin of Lake Ontario. 

Lake trout eggs were received from Clearwater (Atika- 
meg) Lake, Manitoba, in exchange for brook trout eggs 
provided by Dorion hatchery and maskinonge fry provided 
by Deer Lake hatchery. The experimental use of two-year- 
old lake trout in the Muskoka lakes has produced significant 
returns and may hold promise for other inland waters 
hampered by reduced productivity of the native stocks, 
especially when in competition with other species. On the 
other hand, lake trout yearling plantings in Manitou Lake, 



Manitoulin Island, now form 88 per cent of the spawning 
females, indicating the proven success of yearling plantings 
in specific waters. 

During experimental yellow pickerel culture at White 
Lake hatchery, a technique was developed to initiate young 
yellow pickerel on an artificial diet. This is a significant find- 
ing. Previous restrictions on rearing yellow pickerel were 
caused by their preference for live feed and cannibalistic 
habits. 

Golden shiners were spawned and reared experimentally 
at Westport hatchery in an effort to provide the commercial 
bait fish industry with methods and procedures for the 
artificial culture of bait fishes. 

Several public fishing areas in southern Ontario, main- 
tained by the Department and the Conservation Authori- 
ties Branch of the Department of Energy and Resources 
Management, were stocked with catchable trout. These fish 
provide quality angling in areas of high population where 
suitable water and opportunity is limited. 

University and Government research agencies were also 
provided with Provincial hatchery fish for studies related 
directly or indirectly to improving our knowledge of fisher- 
ies management. 

Our commitment to the International Great Lakes Fishery 
Commission for the rehabilitation of Lake Superior, follow- 
ing lamprey control on these waters, is 500,000 lake trout 
yearlings annually. These fish were provided from Dorion 
and Tarentorus hatcheries. 

To accommodate visitors and those interested in fish 
culture and fisheries, our hatcheries remain open seven 
days a week. The annual number of visitors has exceeded 
100,000 people, and a large percentage of these come in 
pre-arranged guided tours. 

Where possible, assistance is afforded to private hatchery 
operators and pond owners on an advisory basis. Sixty in- 
dividual, private fish hatcheries were licensed in 1968. Of 
these, nine were licensed for restocking purposes only, 27 
for human consumption sales, and 24 for both purposes. 

DOMESTIC OR SPORT FISHING LICENCES 

Number of Licences Sold 
Type of Licence 1963 1967 1968 

Non-resident Smelt 3,500 5,171 4,870* 

Resident Smelt 4,500 5,706 3,941 

Angler's Bait-fish 81 425 826 

Domestic Dip-net 81 425 826 

'Includes non-resident bow-and-arrow fishermen. 



24 



SALE OF ANGLING LICENCES 



Type of Licence 1965 1966 1967 1968 

Non-resident Seasonal 403,894 409,539 

Non-resident 3-day 122,219 151,373 

Non-resident Organized Camp 7,041 10,541 

Resident (introduced Jan. 1/69) 

Resident Provincial Park (discontinued Dec. 31/68) 12,638 12,805 

Resident Provincial Park Organized Camp (discontinued Dec. 31/68) 344 444 

FISH DISTRIBUTION FROM ONTARIO PROVINCIAL HATCHERIES (continued) 



411,768 


446,468 


156,493 


161,473 


10,550 


7,670 




69,648 


13,120 


13,200 


446 


399 



SPECIES 



NUMBER OF FISH DISTRIBUTED 



1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 



Bass, Largemouth 

Fry 

Fingerling 

Yearling 

Adult 

Bass, Smalimouth 

Fry 

Fingerling 

Adult 

Grayling, Arctic 

Adult 215 

Herring 

Eyed Eggs 

Fry 

Kokanee 

Eyed Eggs 

Fry 

Fingerling 

Maskinonge 

Fry 

Fingerling 

Yearling 

Adult 

Salmon, Atlantic 

Fry 

Adult 

Splake 

Fingerling 

Yearling 

2 Year-olds 

Adult 



112,000 


81 ,000 


41,500 


67,500 


60,000 


90,650 


107,500 


147,000 


75,000 


49,900 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2,000 


— 


— 


— 


260 


45 


52,000 


58,000 


36,200 


98,000 


38,200 


239,450 


230,700 


215,500 


211,950 


91,000 


290 


165 


160 


178 


181 



— 


— 


1,150,000 


7,030,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2,000,000 


— 


__ 


683,300 


923,200 


_ 


_ 


— 


1,608,344 


942,911 


2,405,485 


413,000 


— 


287,680 


— 


212,100 


58,525 


1,530,000 


1 ,850,000 


1,330,000 


2,580,000 


2,400,000 


26,300 


24,600 
15 


22,212 


12,200 


26,600 


— 


— 


195 


— 


15,400 


. 











106 





— 





— 














2,000 


87,650 


21,200 


69,000 


65,452 


36,226 


11,645 


15,700 


44 


7,300 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


984 








Continued . . . 



25 



FISH DISTRIBUTION FROM ONTARIO PROVINCIAL HATCHERIES (continued) 



SPECIES 



1964 



NUMBER OF FISH DISTRIBUTED 



1965 



1966 



1967 



1968 



Sturgeon 

Adult — 

Trout, Albino Brook 

Yearling 3,873 

2 Year-olds — 

Trout, Aurora 

Fry 582 

Fingerling — • 

Yearling 682 

Trout, Brook 

Eyed Eggs 400,000 

Fry 8,000 

Fingerling 505,750 

Yearling 1,725,755 

2 Year-olds 111,920 

Adult — 

Trout, Lake 

Eyed Eggs 20,000 

Fry - 

Fingerling 690 

Yearling 981,806 

2 Year-olds 535 

Adult — 

Trout, Rainbow 

Eggs — 

Eyed Eggs — 

Fry — 

Fingerling 140,500 

Yearling 318,890 

2 Year-olds 14,553 

Adult — 

Pickerel, Yellow 

Eyed Eggs 14,000,000 

Fry 1,353,000 

Fingerling — 

Adult — 

Whitefish 

Eyed Eggs 

Fry 27,090,000 

Pike, Northern 

Adult — 



4,380 



4,000 



12,861 
1,093 



673,900 


— 


2,741,000 

50 

1,125,454 


— 


600,275 


480,490 


524,463 


1,818,891 


1,599,092 


1,654,182 


1,149,091 


69,216 


28,895 


52,470 


26,535 


— 


— 


40,720 


13,406 


_ 


_ 


50,000 





— 


11,900 


— 


20,000 


224,800 


395,081 


328,443 


190,540 


826,865 


1,335,830 


1,291,969 


1,351,745 


9,340 


312 


12,600 


10,462 


— 


— 


405 


1,209 


_ 


_ 


45,000 


200,000 


— 


100,000 


631,500 


333,000 


65,000 


— 


6,000 


— 


11,750 


30,820 


87,810 


67,536 


269,285 


125,510 


147,850 


361,180 


62,750 


10,000 


29,500 


22,296 


— 


— 


13,600 


470 


15,600,000 


10,000,000 


13,054,800 


6,240,000 


— 


8,232,000 


28,000,000 


189,050 


55,655 


— 


41,656 


5,200 


— 


— 


200 


12 






300,000 


_ 


24,030,000 


19,845,000 


240,000 


— 



303 



26 



FISH DISTRIBUTION FROM ONTARIO PROVINCIAL HATCHERIES, 1968 (continued) 

E — Eggs Fy — Fry Yg — ^'earlings Ax — Adults 

EE — Eyed Eggs Fg — Fingerlings 11 — Two-year-olds 

Largemouth Smallmouth 

Hatchery Brook Trout Lake Trout Rainbow Trout Bass Bass Other Species 

Chatsworth 153,000 EE Splake 

11,300 Fg — 12,000 Fg — — 10,600 Fg 

36,966 Yg — — — — — 

6,254 Ax _____ 

Codrlngton 500 Fg — — — — — 

27,100 Yg _____ 

675 Ax — — — — — 

Deer Lake Maskinonge 

900 Fg — — — — 2,400,000 Fy 

25,850 Yg 46,650 Yg 86,400 Yg — — 26,600 Fg 

Dorion 405,500 Fg — 5,000 Fg — — — 

46,500 Yg 288,870 Yg _ _ _ _ 

555 II — — — — — 

3,430 Ax _____ 

Hill Lake 61,000Fg 100,000 Fg 40,000 Fg — — — 

125,250 Yg 22,000 Yg 31,500 Yg — — — 

13,900 11 _____ 

2,217 Ax — 470 Ax — — — 

Midhurst 10,905 Fg — 100 Fg — 10,000 Fg — 

70,480 Yg 19,700 Yg 17,650 Yg _ _ _ 

— — 2,889 11 45 Ax — — 

Normandale — — 200,000 EE — — — 

— — 10,436 Fg — — — 
13,186 Yg — 59,830 Yg _ _ _ 

— — 19,407 11 — — — 

Continued . 



27 



FISH DISTRIBUTION FROM ONTARIO PRDVINCIAL HATCHERIES, 1968 (continued) 

E — Eggs Fy — Fry Yg — Yearlings Ax — Adults 

BE — Eyed Eggs Fg — Fingeriings II — Two-year-olds 

Largemouth Smallmouth 

Hatchery Brook Trout Lake Trout Rainbow Trout Bass Bass 

North Bay 35,000 Yg 86,000 Yg 9,500 Yg — — 

12,000 11 — — — — 

600 Ax — — — — 

Pembroke 33,400 Fg — — — — 

138,560 Yg — 10,000 Yg — — 

121,450 Yg 

Skeleton Lake — — 100,000 EE — — 

— — — — 51,000 Fg 

151.499 Yg 108,200 Yg _ _ _ 

— 10,462 II — — — 

Tarentorus 630 Fg — — — — 

128.500 Yg 522,000 Yg 18,000 Yg — — 
80 II — — — — 

230 Ax 1,209 Ax — — — 

Westport — — — — — 

— — — 56,000 Fy — 

— — — 49,900 Fg — 
31,000 Yg 49,500 Yg 8,000 Yg 2,000 Yg — 

White Lake — — 80,000 EE — — 

328 Fg — — — — 

197,750 Yg 176,325 Yg 59,300 Yg — — 

Wiarton — 57,700 Fg — — — 



Other Species 



Port Arthur 


— 


20,000 Fy 
32,840 Fg 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Sandfield 


121,450 Yg 


32,500 Yg 


61,000Yg 


4,000 Fy 


38,200 Fy 

8,000 Fg 

181 Ax 


Maskinonge 

40,000 Fy 
400 Fg 



Splake 

2,000 Fg 

25,626 Yg 

984 Ax 



Yellow Pickerel 

55,000,000 EE 

12 Ax 

Northern Pike 

303 Ax 



Yellow Pickerel 
6,240,000 EE 
189,050 Fy 
5,200 Fg 



Kokanee 
150,000 Fy 
58,525 Fg 



OTHER CULTURES: 

35,000 Kokanee swim-up fry planted from South Bay Fisheries Research Station. 
228,000 Kokanee swim-up fry planted from Glenora Fisheries Research Station. 



28 



COMMERCIAL FISH UNIT 

The Commercial Fish Unit is responsible for licensing com- 
mercial fisheries; setting seasons, quotas, size limits, and 
otherwise regulating fishing; collecting and compiling bio- 
logical and economic statistics on the harvest; planning and 
co-ordinating surveys to monitor fish stocks and evaluate 
the effects of fishing; and implementing programs to assist 
the industry in its efforts to advance technologically. In 
addition, the Unit directs provincial activities related to the 
administration of the Fishermen's Indemnity Plan m Ontario. 

THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY 

The fishing industry landed 55.7 million pounds of fish, 
worth 6.0 million dollars at the producer level, in 1968. This 
was an increase of 2.7 million pounds or 5.1 per cent over 
the production of the previous year. The landings included 
a record catch of 24.4 million pounds of yellow perch from 
Lake Erie. 

The industry reported a labour force of 2,044 men in 1968 
and an investment in vessels, gear, and shore installations 
amounting to 10.8 million dollars. Among those deriving a 
living from fishing were several hundred Indians in remote 
northern areas. 

Sales by the bait fish industry, which are not included in 
the above statistics, totalled 1.5 million dollars in 1968. 
More interest was shown in bait fish culture, and some 
further facilities for this purpose were constructed. How- 
ever, the majority of the fish sold still were taken under 
licence from lakes and streams in the Province. 

LICENSING 

Commercial fisheries are established where there is a re- 
source base adequate to support their economic operation 
and where their presence will contribute to a net increase 
in total benefits. Accordingly, 106 new fishing licences were 
Issued in 1968. The total number of commercial fishing 
licences issued, however, declined by 16 to 1,731 as a re- 
sult of some fishing privileges, which had been made re- 
dundant by changing biological and economic conditions, 
not being renewed. 

In addition to the fishing licences, 29 experimental per- 
mits were issued to commercial fishermen. Such permits 
enable the fishermen to experiment with new or modified 
forms of gear which are not otherwise provided for in the 
regulations, and to assess the feasibility of extending their 
operations Into new areas and times. Studies carried out 
under the authority of this type of permit led to a longer 
balt-flsh seine being declared legal in 1968. 

A new policy, with respect to the management and 
licensing of the commercial fishery on Lake St. Clair, was 



announced in October of 1968. Under the new policy, gill- 
nets would continue to be excluded from the lake, and no 
further pound-net or baited-hook licences would be per- 
mitted. Fishermen, however, would be able to increase 
their individual holding through transfer procedures and 
to expand their use of coarse fish. It was felt that sufficient 
pressure was already being exerted on prime species. The 
policy ensured that commercial fishing would be conducted 
in such a manner that the least possible conflict with the 
growing sport fishery and other recreational activities would 
occur. At the same time, it provided for the development 
and economic stability of Individual fishing enterprises. 

REGULATIONS 

Of the various changes made to the Ontario Fishery Regula- 
tions in 1968, many were for the purpose of separating the 
regulations pertaining to sport and commercial fishing. 
Several, however, were important from a management 
standpoint. A closed season on commercial fishing in the 
Essex County waters of Lake Erie was established for the 
period. May 16 to April 14, to allow greater numbers of 
these fish to spawn. The population had declined substan- 
tially and was showing signs of instability. For the same 
period and in the same connection, the use of gill-nets, 
suitable for yellow pickerel or any gill-nets floated off the 
bottom, was prohibited. Another amendment opened 
Whitefish Bay of Lake Superior to commercial lake trout 
fishing and placed a limit of 15,000 pounds on the trout 
catch for that area for the year. 

MARKETING AND PRICES 

The prices for the premium freshwater fish species im- 
proved in 1968 as the frozen stores of fish, which had 
accumulated the year before, cleared. 

— Continued on Page 34 

The Leola Charles while engaged in experimental fish- 
ing operations conducted by the Department in Lake 
Ontario. 




Statistics of the Fishing Industry in the Public Waters of Ontario for the Year Ending December 31, 1968 

QUANTITIES OF FISH TAKEN (pounds) 



Species 


Lake 
Ontario 


Lake 

Erie 


Lake 
St. Clair 


Lake 
Huron 


Georgian 
Bay 


North 
Channel 


Bowfin 


15,276 


9,854 
















Bullheads 


145,533 


15,150 


3,120 




429 


1,375 








Burbot 




92 








2,344 








Carp 


412,132 


93,473 


289,711 


58,183 


21,376 


2,867 


Catfish 


23,303 


92,036 


108,813 


8,341 


10,225 




Chub 








262,705 


179,652 


2,125 


Eels 


172,934 


222 
















Freshwater Drum 


24,838 


651,122 


19,318 


100,726 


950 










Goldeye 




40,264 


10 




4,603 


17,494 


2,632 








Lake Trout 








4,187 


23 


115 








Lake Whitefish 


76,955 


663 




356,205 


285,594 


99,125 








Northern Pike 


33,813 


2,022 


23,999 


287 


11,011 


16,059 








Yellow Perch 


304,171 


24,435,187 


59,071 


71,022 


38,394 


13,688 


Rock Bass & Craooies 


64,419 


45,426 


84,952 


112 


217 


1,067 








Round Whitefish 








15,692 


13,792 


4,587 












622 




3 


62 










Smelt 


167,815 


12,223,304 




1,459 


14 




Sturgeon 


1,837 


611 


12,809 


6,195 


404 


14,473 


Suckers 


19,356 


19,862 


122,552 


120,507 


34,339 


55,495 








Sunfish 


185,763 


28,613 


78,212 








Yellow Pickerel 


21,995 


328,411 


225,808 


324,998 


61,130 


17,176 








White Bass 


5,524 


751,162 


56,943 


3,774 


83 










White Perch 


223,087 












Mixed "Scrap" Animal Food 


70,031 


717,407 


36,015 


115,444 


53,247 


13,848 








Total Catch 


2,009,037 


39,415,249 


1,121,323 


1,454,443 


728,436 


246,976 








Total Value 


$ 284,272 


$ 2,973,814 


$ 270,626 


$ 509,471 : 


$ 222,089 $ 85,255 



30 



Lake 
Superior 


Northern 
Inland 


Southern 
Inland 


Total 
Catch 


Total 
Value 






875 


25,996 


606 




32,509 


197,161 


395,277 


70,866 




368,894 


11,057 


382,387 


4,555 






109,298 


987,040 


87,016 






12,672 


255,390 


71,104 


4,565 


231,621 


35 


680,703 


89,983 






7,860 


181,016 


45,286 




646 


4,386 


801,986 


21,077 




2,112 




2,112 


325 


2,648,861 


270,708 




2,984,572 


177,538 


193,423 


103,278 




301,026 


131,473 


212,205 


1,861,091 


13,878 


2,905,716 


917,228 


2,252 


863,039 


3,115 


955,597 


96,508 


9,604 


32,384 


4,994 


24,968,515 


2,107,470 




63,342 


16,304 


275,839 


65,717 


21,273 


175 




55,519 


9,912 


16,844 


50,579 


1,876 


69,986 


13,939 


97,622 






12,490,214 


485,925 


2,465 


31,921 


8,655 


79,370 


104,414 


28,775 


856,029 


21,006 


1,277,921 


27,956 






107,761 


400,349 


54,141 


119,022 


1,666,299 




2,764,839 


1,078,359 




642 


1,367 


819,495 


277,237 






7,676 


230,763 


17,504 


8,089 


375,999 


23,715 


1,413,795 


11,800 


3,365,000 


6,811,268 


553,691 


55,705,423 




$ 403,008 


$ 1,136,176 $ 


83,227 




$ 5,967,939 




A Lake iMpigun //sii lug, uwned and operated by 
Indians. 



31 



Statistics of the Fishing Industry in the Public Waters of Ontario for the Year Ending December 31, 1968 



COMMERCIAL FISHING EQU 


IPMENT 




















Lake 
Ontario 


Lake 
Erie 


Lake 
St. Clair 


Lake 
Huron 


Georgian 
Bay 


NUMBER OF MEN EMPLOYED: 






280 


626 


76 


118 


147 


FISHING BOATS: 


40 feet and over 


No. 

Tons 

Value 


$ 


3 

31 
12,000 


130 

3,077 
2,616,560 


— 


31 
689 

437,322 


23 

266 
239,718 


20 to 39 feet 


No. 
Value 


$ 


54 
93,750 


64 
214,000 


20 
53,200 


13 
44,500 


35 
72,500 


Under 20 feet 


No. 
Value 


$ 


225 
64,987 


103 
25,920 


56 
27,525 


15 
7,545 


42 
23,935 



FISHING GEAR: 

Yards 
Gill Nets Values 



885,004 
201,398 



4,295,104 
1,423,895 



1,060,060 
275,369 



961,265 
238,747 



Pound Nets 


No. 
Value $ 


— 


111 
65,300 


514 
187,080 


13 

13,400 


27 
47,900 


Trap Nets 


No. 
Values 


28 

7,650 


295 
200,500 


— 


129 
109,125 


10 
8,950 


Hoop Nets 


No. 
Values 


955 

74,195 


66 

4,770 


10 
600 


— 


— 


Seine Nets 


No. Yds. 
Values 


1,865 
5,650 


9,090 
35,755 


3,300 
5,725 


— 


100 
2,500 


Night Lines 


Hooks 
Value S 


24,802 
3,505 


10,796 
2,735 


23,253 
4,505 


- 


900 
150 


Dip Nets 


No. 
Values 


1 
20 


— 


— 


— 


z 


Trolling Lines 


No. 
Values 


34 
940 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Trawls 


No. 
Value $ 


— 


119 
117,450 


— 


— 


z 


SHORE INSTALLATIONS: 


Freezers and Ice Houses 


No. 
Values 


27 
14,190 


27 
433,770 


16 
22,300 


18 
107,300 


39 

89,075 


Piers and Wharves 


No. 
Value S 


42 
12,875 


55 
80,583 


18 
8,325 


12 
10,900 


50 
47,700 


Net Sheds 


No. 
Values 


117 
80,275 


136 
490,076 


30 
71,640 


38 
128,800 


59 

100,975 


TOTAL VALUE 


$$ 


S 571,435 


S 5,711,314 ! 


t 380,900 


S 1,134,261 3 


) 872,150 



32 



North 
Channel 


Lake Northern 
Superior Inland 


Southern 
Inland Totals 


43 


131 


503 


120 


2,044 




6 

81 
139,000 


15 

289 
193,600 


9 

86 
94,832 


— 


217 

4,519 

3,733,032 


13 
23,250 


32 
76,925 


70 
105,026 


5 
3,100 


306 
686,251 


23 
7,215 


69 
37,865 


376 
209,569 


98 
18,690 


1,007 
423,251 




183,300 
45,100 


610,464 
166,560 


847,450 
262,219 


45,600 
15,300 


8,888,247 
2,628,588 


9 
3,900 


10 
11,445 


50 
42,080 


— 


734 
371,105 


10 
4,420 


1 
1,400 


78 
51,496 


1 
900 


552 
384,441 


— 


10 
750 


112 
8,960 


762 
46,365 


1,915 
125,640 


— 


6,000 
600 


z 


2,282 
4,934 


22,637 
55,164 


z 


z 


900 
196 


4,450 
1,310 


65,101 
12,401 


1 

10 


— 


— 


4 
105 


6 
135 


— 


— 


— 


z 


34 
940 


— 


5 
6,100 


— 


— 


124 
123,550 




18 
15,975 


41 
108,200 


227 
178,975 


17 
8,649 


430 
978,434 


13 
6,200 


43 
26,800 


158 

69,077 


12 
2,775 


403 
265,235 


19 
15,850 


71 
55,745 


150 
70,007 


31 
12,275 


651 
1,025,643 


$ 260,920 $ 


685,990 


$ 1,092,437 $ 


114,403 


$10,823,810 






A lidwl, iliuwing giddudiiurii in iiie^ii m,lc-, awaits use 
at Port Dover. 



33 



The Fisheries Prices Support Board modified its plan to 
support the price of yellow perch in 1968 by reducing the 
price being maintained for perch at the dockside from ten 
cents to seven cents for the spring period. At the same time, 
the Department introduced quotas on yellow perch from 
Lake Erie to insure that the catches would be more evenly 
distributed over the period when the fishery is active. The 
quotas, which initially were five million pounds for the 
April 1-May 31 period and ten million pounds for the re- 
mainder of the season, were later raised by one million and 
six million pounds, respectively. 

A series of meetings were held in northwestern Ontario 
in 1968 to enable fishermen to learn how the operation of 
a marketing organization, such as the one proposed by a 
Royal Commission on freshwater fish marketing, would 
affect them. A majority of the fishermen subsequently ex- 
pressed the opinion that much of northwestern Ontario 
should be included in the designated area of a planned 
Marketing Corporation. 

FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 

The Department, with financial and technical assistance 
from the Department of Fisheries of Canada, launched one 
new development program in 1968 and renewed its partici- 
pation in a second program that was initiated the year 
before. 

On Lake Ontario, a program of experimental trawling 
was conducted with the object of assessing the biological 
and economic feasibility of developing a commercial trawl 
fishery for smelts and alewives. The work, which was 
directed by the biologist from the Bay of Quinte Fisheries 
Management Unit, was carried out under contract by fisher- 
men and a vessel from the Lake Erie fleet of trawlers. 

Between the dates July 24 and December 13, 1968, 
searches for fish were made along prescribed courses with- 
in 50 square-mile sampling areas, using a sensitive echo 
sounder as a fish detecting device. Tows, with one of several 
types of trawls provided for the project, were made in those 
areas where sizeable concentrations of fish were found 
over a regular bottom suitable for trawling. 

The results were encouraging. Two extensive areas were 
found where smelts and alewives were dense and where 
trawling operations could be safely conducted: one in the 
eastern basin and the other off Hamilton. Both were thought 
to have commercial potential. Plans were made to conduct 
further fishing, more on a commercial scale, in those areas 
and to investigate fully the marketing opportunities avail- 
able to fishermen who might take the fish. 

Financial aid was provided for a second year to assist the 
industry on Lake Erie in a study of the economics of operat- 



ing a small, fish meal plant to process filleting wastes and 
coarse fish. The findings are expected to be useful to a wide 
sector of the fishing industry, at both the producer and 
processor level. 

FISHERMEN'S INDEMNITY PLAN 

Twenty-one fishermen availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity of obtaining low-cost insurance under the Fisher- 
men's Indemnity Plan in 1968. This brought to 40 the 
number of fishermen who had taken out policies since the 
Plan was introduced to Ontario in 1967. 

The Department's function in the administration of the 
Plan, which was initiated by the Department of Fisheries of 
Canada, has been to provide the necessary field services. 
These include appraising vessels, receiving premiums and 
investigating claims. 

The sinking of an insured vessel in 1968 resulted in the 
first payment to an Ontario fisherman being made under 
the provisions of the Plan. The claim was related to the cost 
of raising the vessel and restoring it to working order. 

PROJECTS 

An intensive commercial catch, sampling project was under- 
taken at the western end of Lake Erie in 1968 to secure in- 
formation needed for developing regulations that would 
effectively protect immature yellow pickerel and yet not 
unnecessarily restrict fishing activities directed at other val- 
ued species. Data on fishing methods, locations and intensity 
and on catch size and composition, were obtained by three 
staff members who travelled aboard the fishing vessels. The 
project represented an extension of a catch sampling pro- 
gram that is being developed across the Province to moni- 
tor fisheries and fish populations. 

A study of the changes occurring in a whitefish popula- 
tion in Lower Rideau Lake was pursued by Kemptville dis- 
trict staff to establish guidelines for managing the whitefish 
fishery in future. Commercial fishing was first allowed for 
these fish in 1966 and it was observed that the population, 
which earlier had been little exploited, was undergoing 
rapid change. 

Efforts to define the movements of yellow pickerel within 
Lake St. Clair and between this body of water and the two 
adjoining lakes, Erie and Huron, were resumed in 1968. A 
total of 2,500 of these fish were tagged and released, 1,500 in 
the Thames River and the remaining 1,000 in Lake St. Clair. 
Tag returns have indicated that there is some movement be- 
tween the above mentioned waters, a fact which managers 
can now take into account. 



34 



FISHERIES INVENTORY UNIT 

An inventory of Ontario lakes, to determine the present and 
potential capability of every lake as a fish producing unit, 
is directed by the Unit, established in 1966. 

Refinement and sophistication of technique and survey 
gear were prominent features in the 1968 program. 

Standardization of lake survey gear and techniques over 
21 District field offices, the establishment of duplicate Dis- 
trict office survey files in Head Office, and the implementa- 
tion of a data control system were major accomplishments. 

Participation in the ARDA-CLI Sports Fish Capability 
Study in conjunction with the Federal government resulted 
in the completion of 11 maps (1:250,000 Topographic 
series) showing Sports Fish Capability ratings for much of 
southern Ontario. 

The employment of a helicopter, to work in conjunction 
with a six-man lake survey crew from a central headquarters, 
instead of the conventional two-man crew, was tested dur- 
ing the month of September. The helicopter was also used 
during March to collect under-the-ice water samples for 
chemical analysis. 

The search for more efficient and versatile equipment 
resulted in the purchase of Conductivity Meters, used as an 
aid in determining water productivity. Continued experi- 
mental testing of survey gear resulted in the purchase of 

Representation of a typical watershed on a topographic map 
showing code number and lake and stream classification. 




more efficient Echo Sounders by many Districts, and the 
increased use of Monofilament gill nets. 

Several projects, such as preliminary investigations into 
the role that infra red photography may play in plant iden- 
tification and recording shoreline characteristics; training 
of fish scale readers and the establishment of facilities 
throughout the province; searching for an efficient multi- 
probe water chemistry testing unit; the introduction of a 
specialized lake survey training course; the computerization 
of data; and the possibility of using an amphibious four- 
seat Hovermarine Hovercraft for lake and stream surveys — 
were either continued or initiated. 

At the year's end, there was reason to believe that scale 
reading, training courses, and data programming and pro- 
cessing would be prominent features of the 1969 program. 

STANDARDIZATION OF LAKE SURVEYS 

After a study of District files, information on 7,876 bodies 
of water have been recorded on summary sheets as of 
December 31, 1968. Of these 3,488 had been surveyed in 
some depth, but few surveys met our present, rigid stan- 
dards. It became obvious that the establishment of minimum 
survey standards and a uniform method of establishing 
duplicate records in both District offices and Head Office 
were essential. The findings of this study resulted in making 
our 1969 program two-fold in purpose; first, to up-date the 
survey summary sheets, which did not meet the minimum 
survey standard requirements of the most important lakes 

A helicopter delivers 14-loot aluminum boat and other gear 
to lake survey crew. 




35 



(clerical entries and water chemistry tests were the principal 
omissions); and second, to survey new waters of high man- 
agement priority rating within the District. 

1968 LAKE INVENTORY SURVEYS 

University students, summer Ranger Technicians and Con- 
servation Officers participated in the summer inventory 
program. Completed surveys reached a new high, 630 in 
number, and were conducted in all but two Forest Districts; 
Chapleau and Lake Erie were the exceptions. 

SPORTS FISH CAPABILITY STUDY 

One hundred and sixteen lakes, representing 79,000 ± 
acres, were completely surveyed to meet both Sports Fish 
Capability Study and Inventory standards. Eleven topo- 
graphical map sheets (Scale 1:250,000), covering the entire 
western portion of Ontario as far north as North Bay and 
west of Belleville, were prepared and dated as to their 
Sports Fish Capability. 

The rating system used in this survey was developed by 
the Federal Government and is designed to give planners 
general statements about sport fishing potential without 
going into detail. 

Using this system, waters are to be divided into four 
classes as follows: 

Class 1 — waters in this class have no important limitations 
to the production of sport fish. 

Class 2 — waters in this class have slight limitations to the 
production of sport fish. 

Class 3 — waters in this class have moderate limitations to 
the production of sport fish. 

Class 4 — waters in this class have severe limitations to the 
production of sport fish. 

The above classes were further rated according to the 
limitation that affected the class level. The letters D for 
depth, F for flow, L for light penetration, N for nutrient, O 
for oxygen, T for temperature, S for special factors, were 
used. Up to two letters could be used for each class, with 
the most important being first. Thus, a lake which would 
be excellent for sport fish production except for a severe 
lack of nutrients, might be rated 3N. 

It should be emphasized that this rating system is for 
Canada Land Inventory purposes, only, and is quite sep- 
arate from the detailed lake survey index we are presently 
developing for Ontario lakes, based on our own lake survey 
program. 

HELICOPTER POTENTIAL IN LAKE SURVEYS 

The primary purpose of this experiment was to establish 
whether the use of the helicopter would accelerate any or 



all of the survey procedures and whether specialization by 
personnel in a six-man survey crew would result in more 
efficient work and better information. The aim was to in- 
crease the quantity of work, yet improve quality of the data. 

A number of difficulties were experienced throughout the 
two-week study in the Severn River area, south of Highway 
No. 69. However, there is reason to believe that many, if 
not all, could be overcome by modification of helicopter 
fitting or accessories and sophistication of survey gear. This 
project is being pursued. 

LAKE WATER SAMPLING DURING WINTER 

Water samples were collected from fifty lakes in the Bruce 
Peninsula and Lake Muskoka and Haliburton Highland 
regions during March. A two-man survey crew moved from 
lake to lake by helicopter. Two-to-three feet of ice had to 
be drilled by auger to obtain a water sample. The purpose 
of this study was to compare the chemical and biological 
properties of water in lakes located in different geological 
formations, watersheds and site regions (areas of the same 
landform which produce the same type of vegetation, and 
these lands must be within an area in which there is no 
very great variation in the regional climate) and to investi- 
gate whether the chemical properties of lakes varied sig- 
nificantly from season to season. 

INVENTORY RECORD OF SURVEY GEAR 

March 31, 1969 



Item 


Quantity 


District 


Head Office 


Hach Chemical Kits: 








DR-EL Engineers 


26 


4 


22 


AL-36 Laboratories 


39 


24 


15 


Field Kits 








Echo Sounders: 








Bendix 


15 


15 





Ferrograph 


25 


13 


12 


Furuno 


31 


16 


15 


Thermistors 


51 


28 


23 


Trichinoscopes 


18 


16 


2 


Jewellers Presses 


16 


16 





Conductivity Meters 


5 


3 


2 


Sechhi Discs 


50 


46 


4 


Eckman Dredges 


2 


2 






In addition to this equipment, supplies of multifilament 
and monofilament gill nets, minnow seines, dissecting kits, 
abney hand levels, camping and cookery units were re- 
corded. 



36 




Parks Branch is divided into three sections with duties and 
responsibilities as follows, 

Recreation Planning: 

Long-range planning for parks and related public recrea- 
tion areas. 

Park Planningand Development 

Detailed Provincial Park master plans and control of all 
park development according to approved plans. 

Park Management 

Establishment and control of standards of park operations; 
direction of park interpretive programs; establishment of a 
nature reserve program; management of operating revenues 
and expenditures; compilation of statistical data; and man- 
agement of a program of public access points to water, 
and a system of canoe routes, hiking trails and snowmobile 
trails. 



PARKS 
BRANCH 



37 



CLASSES OF PARKS 
IN ONTARIO 

To meet the broad spectrum of present park requirements 
and to plan for the future, the Provincial Park system con- 
tains five different classes or types. Each offers different 
recreational experiences, and each provides varied facili- 
ties in keeping with the class purpose. 

• Class I, Primitive Par\<s are large areas of natural landscape 
preserved for recreation, education and scientific observa- 
tion. They are reserved from natural resource exploitation 
and from major facility development such as serviced 
campgrounds. 

• Class II, Wild River Parks are significant rivers established 
for recreation, aesthetic or historic purposes. They are pro- 
tected from the intrusion of incompatible land and water 
uses. 

• Class III, Natural Environment Parks, landscapes of out- 
standing aesthetic or historic significance, are established 
primarily for recreation and education. Other resource uses 
are permitted providing they do not conflict with recrea- 
tion. Facilities and services may be limited so as to interfere 
as little as possible with the environment. Zones further 
protect special areas. 

• Class IV, Recreation Parks are areas of intensive recrea- 
tional use in which the environment may be substantially 
modified to accommodate park users. There are two sub- 
classes to this class: (1) Recreation Areas, which are day 
use oriented; and (2) Campgrounds which are camper 
oriented. These parks contain more fully-serviced facilities. 

• Class V, Nature Reserves are unique natural areas estab- 
lished for scientific and educational uses. General public 
enjoyment is permitted if it is not detrimental to the area. 

RECREATION PLANNING 

Work was initiated during 1968-69 on a significant new 
research and planning program, the Canada Outdoor 
Recreation Demand Study (CORDS). This study, which is a 
co-operative project involving the 10 provincial park agen- 
cies and the Federal Government, aims at achieving a more 
complete understanding and measurement of outdoor rec- 
reation demands in Canada to guide investment and man- 
agement planning, to identify and evaluate policy alterna- 
tives, and to forecast recreational use of resources as it 
relates to alternative development proposals. 



During the summer of 1968, with the assistance of Brock 
University, Waterloo Lutheran University and the University 
of Western Ontario, the Section carried out an inventory 
of some 12,000 public and private outdoor recreation 
facilities in both urban and non-urban areas. The Conserva- 
tion Authorities Branch of the Department of Energy and 
Resources Management co-operated in this project. This 
inventory of outdoor recreation supply is one of the basic 
inputs to CORDS. In addition, during 1968-69, planning 
was undertaken for a Park Visitor Survey to be carried out 
during fiscal year 1969-70 as another element of the CORDS 
program. 

The CORDS program is also closely integrated with the 
Tourism and Outdoor Recreation Plan (TORP) program 
now underway as a co-operative undertaking of several 
departments — Tourism and Information, Treasury and 
Economics, Municipal Affairs, Energy and Resources Man- 
agement, Education, Highways, and Lands and Forests. The 
purpose of the TORP program is to provide the factual 
bases, and to formulate alternative plans, for the attain- 
ment of the social and economic goals defined in Design 
for Development insofar as they relate to tourism and out- 
door recreation. 

During 1968-69, work continued on the assessment and 
evaluation of lands for future provincial park development, 
and a number of new park reserve areas were established 
through land acquisition and the setting aside of Crown 
lands. Particular emphasis is given to the prov/ision of a 
broad spectrum of park types as conceived under the 
1967 Ontario Provincial Park classification and park land 
zoning policy. The goals, development and management 
guidelines, and activities, for each area, are expressed 
through the preparation of detailed park master plans. 

PARK PLANNING AND 
DEVELOPEMENT 

Master Planning was commenced for six Provincial Parks. 
A Provisional Master Plan for Algonquin Park was published 
and when Public hearings were held, more than 100 briefs 
were submitted. The planning process is continuing under 
the direction of a task force whose responsibility is to assess 
the briefs and prepare planning guidelines by the end of 
1969. These guidelines will be in force for the period 
to 1975. 

Site planning was done for 45 parks and park areas. A 
program for upgrading park entrance structures was insti- 
tuted. Development appropriations amounting to $3,665,- 



38 



TOTAL ANNUAL VISITORS 



9,791,671 



10,155,091 



9,440,211 



9,139,975 
8,526.443 §■■■ 8375,668 



6,215,370 



5,692,598 f 
5,106,352 ' ,f 1 

/ I) 



2,114,661 




3,232,460 




i^ 




1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 



TOTAL ANNUAL CAMPERS 
Starting in 1963, the number of 
campers shown on renewal campsite 
permits were not included in the 
total camper statistics 



1,155,091 -1 119 912 



1,063,127 



165,055 


277,183 



479,069 




592,103 




1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 



39 



000* were allocated for individual projects in 102 parks 
and park reserves. Development was focused on upgrading 
existing parks and improving sanitation facilities and water 
supplies in parks already in operation. Access roads to 
many park areas were improved. Wherever possible, these 
projects were tied in with current highway improvements. 
*Ot this amount, $1,200,000 was earmarked lor ARDA participation 
parks with $600,000 returnable to Treasury Irom Federal funds. 

PARK MANAGEMENT 

Ninety-six Provincial Parks were in operation during the 
1968 parks season. Wakami Lake and Missinaibi Lake in the 
Chapleau district, and Polar Bear Park in the Cochrane 
district, were operated as Provincial Parks for the first time, 
while Clay Creek, in the Lake Erie district, was deleted 
from the Provincial Park system and turned over to the local 
conservation authority for operation. 

Polar Bear Park, located on the shores of Hudson and 
James Bays, was established as the Province's first primitive 
class park. The addition of Polar Bear, with its four million 
acres, literally doubled the area of land contained within 
the Provincial Parks system. As it is a primitive park, there 
will be little, if any, development taking place in the area. 
This park is a major addition to the Provincial Park system 
and should contribute a good deal towards the preserva- 
tion of a representative, and yet unique, segment of our 
Arctic tundra for the enjoyment, education and study of 
present and future generations. 

There was a decline in park use even though there were 
two additional parks in operation. Below-average weather, 
the loss of the Expo 67 travel stimulus, and revised user fees 
were all felt to contribute to this decline. Day use visitation 
at 9,440,211 was down seven per cent from the 1967 atten- 
dance figure, while the 1,119,912 campers represented a 
three per cent decline. 

CHANGES IN FEES 

An increase in user fees was implemented prior to the 
1968 park operating season. Daily vehicle entry permits 
remained unchanged at $1.00. Annual vehicle entry permits, 
however, were increased from $5.00 to $10.00 per year. The 
camping rate of $1.50 per night (or $9.00 per week), plus 
vehicle entry, was changed to a flat rate of $2.50 per night. 
With this change in the camping fee, the daily and annual 
vehicle entry permits were no longer of value for camping. 

A new camping permit system, designed for self registra- 
tion, was introduced in 1968. Unfortunately, this system 
did not work satisfactorily and will be revised. 




Beach area. Arrowhead Provincial Park. 

An interior camping permit was introduced in Algonquin 
and Quetico Provincial Parks. The fee for interior camping 
was $1.00 per boat, per day, or $5.00 for a 16-day period. 
These fees were introduced in an attempt to balance the 
high maintenance costs that were being encountered in 
removing garbage and litter from campsites and portages in 
the interior of these parks. In addition, the interior permit 
gave parks staff an opportunity to determine exactly the 
numbers of persons using the interior of the parks and what 
areas were being subjected to the greatest pressures. An 
education program was also begun to emphasize the public 
need to carry out garbage. 

INTERPRETIVE SERVICES 

Park interpretive services (designed to promote an under- 
standing and appreciation of Provincial Parks) were present 
in 23 parks in 1968. Museums, exhibits, publications, labelled 
trails and personal services such as conducted trips, illus- 
trated talks, and special group programs are the basic 
techniques in these services. 

Notable program additions in 1968 were the installation 
of an audio-visual program about Algonquin Park in the 
Algonquin Park Visitor Centre, the opening of a naturalist's 
headquarters and display area in Pinery Park, and opening of 
a new exhibit centre at Serpent Mounds Park. 

Services were expanded through the addition of natural- 
ists to District Offices at Cochrane, Tweed and Maple and 
an assistant for the program in Algonquin Park. 

In the area of research, programs were initiated to docu- 
ment (1) the history of the Sibbald family and their home 



40 



in Sibbald Point Park, (2) the sites of historical and archaeo- 
logical significance along the Mattawa River, (3) the Hudson 
Bay Post site at Fort LaCioche, and (4) the extent of the 
Huron village site at Methodist Point Park Reserve. 

NATURE RESERVES 

Nature reserves are Class V parks as described under the 
Park Classification System (1967). Areas so designated may 
lie within existing parks or may be Provincial Parks within 
their own right. These designated reserves will be living 
museums, encompassing unique and representative seg- 
ments of our flora and fauna, as well as unique geological 
and historical areas. In addition to preservation, these areas 
will serve an important role in education and research 
programs. 

To assist the Branch in this program, an advisory com- 
mittee to the Minister has been established. This committee 
will recommend the broad fields of interest and study 
which should be represented in the system of nature re- 
serves as well as recommending specific areas which should 
be established. 

SNOWMOBILE TRAILS 

The rapidly increasing need for snowmobiling areas has 
been met in part by the Provincial Parks system. Roads or 
other specially designated areas are now available for snow- 
mobiling in most Provincial Parks. It has been necessary to 
prohibit or restrict their use in certain parks to protect the 
wilderness environment, deer wintering areas, or fragile 
ecological, geological and historic areas within these parks. 

Snowmobiles are prohibited in: 

1. Sandbanks Provincial Park 

2. Serpent Mounds Provincial Park 

3. Killbear Provincial Park 

4. Quetico Provincial Park 

Snowmobiles are restricted in: 

1. Algonquin Provincial Park — to travel only on the 
following lakes: Canoe, Cache, Bonita, South Tea and 
Smoke. 

2. Lake Superior Provincial Park — to travel only on the 
Midjin Lake Road and Midjin, Maquon, Almonte, Wabi- 
goon and Mirimaki Lakes. 

In conjunction with other winter sports facilities, approx- 
imately 17 miles of snowmobile trail were developed in 
Pinery Park. 

The three new cross-country trails, totalling 65 miles, 
established over Crown lands near Coldwater and Parry 
Sound, will provide information on problems of main- 
tenance and user control on which any expansion of this 
program will be based. 



ACCESS POINTS 

The establishment and maintenance of public access points 
will ensure public access to the major water systems of 
Ontario and will provide one of the means by which it will 
be possible to control and reduce the accumulation of 
refuse and litter on our public lands. 

During 1968, improvements and maintenance were 
carried out on some 475 public access points, and a num- 
ber of new sites were developed across the province. Long- 
range plans for recreational development will include an 
expansion of this program to provide for increasing public 
travel into areas where new road access has been con- 
structed. The development of picnic and rest stops, for 
water-oriented recreationists using small craft along the 
Trent-Severn and Rideau System and the Georgian Bay 
Islands, has received favourable public response. 

CANOE ROUTES 

The program of documenting, mapping and improving of 
portages on major canoe routes is proceeding in con- 
junction with other work programs of the Department. In 
response to increasing public demand for information on 
canoe areas, a provisional brochure, "Canoe Routes in 
Northern Ontario", was widely distributed. 

HIKING TRAILS 

Several hiking trails have been established on Crown lands, 
and plans are underway to assist private agencies in pro- 
viding for this activity by the construction of overnight trail 
shelters, and sanitary and water facilities at appropriate 
locations where these trails cross lands administered by 
the Crown. 

PARKS CERTIFICATE COURSE 

The first Parks Certificate Course was held in Algonquin 
Park from October 21 to November 8. This in-service train- 
ing course was aimed at broadening and up-dating the 
knowledge of the Department's parks personnel. Twenty- 
four candidates, made up of Park Supervisors, Park Super- 
intendents, and Park Naturalists, attended the course. 
Master planning, site planning and park interpretation were 
dealt with in detail within a broad concept of recognition 
of basic park values. 

FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL PARKS CONFERENCE 
Ontario was the host for the 7th Federal-Provincial Parks 
Conference which was held in Algonquin Provincial Park 
from September 30 to October 4. All of the 10 Provinces 
and the Federal Government were represented at the con- 
ference. The theme of the conference was "Use and Under- 
standing". The many excellent presentations and discus- 
sions relating to this theme made the conference an un- 
qualified success. 



41 



RECORD OF PARK USE AND PARK FACILITIES IN 96 PROVINCIAL PARKS 



Park District Park Classification 

CHAPLEAU 

Ivanhoe Lake Natural Environment 

Five Mile Lake Recreational Park 

*Missinalbi Lake Natural Environment 

*Wakami Lake Wild River Park 

COCHRANE 

Greenwater Natural Environment 

Kettle Lakes Recreational Park 

Polar Bear Primitive Park 

Tidewater Natural Environment 

FORT FRANCES 

Caliper Lake Recreational Park 

Lake of the Woods . . Natural Environment 
Quetico Natural Environment 

GERALDTON 

Blacksand Natural Environment 

Klotz Lake Recreational Park 

MacLeod Recreational Park 

Neys Natural Environment 

Rainbow Falls Recreational Park 

KAPUSKASING 

Nagagamisis Natural Environment 

Remi Lake Recreational Park 

KEMPTVILLE 

Fitzroy Recreational Park 

Rideau River Recreational Park 

Silver Lake Recreational Park 

South Nation Recreational Park 

KENORA 

Aaron Recreational Park 

Blue Lake Recreational Park 

Rushing River Recreational Park 

Sioux Narrows Recreational Park 

LINDSAY 

Balsam Lake Recreational Park 

Darlington Recreational Park 

Emily Recreational Park 

Ferris Recreational Park 

Mark S. Burnham . , . Recreational Park 

Presqu'ile Natural Environment 

Serpent Mounds .... Natural Environment 
'Statistics not availdble. 



Visitors 
1967 1968 



Campers 
1967 1968 



Camping 
Units 



Swimming 

Beaches 

(Feet) 



29,029 

3,277 



25,660 
5,658 



4,430 
2,581 



5,825 
3,338 



144 
87 



8,500 
500 



21,158 


20,465 


2,624 


3,034 


51 


600 


56,408 


34,593 


4,988 


4,569 


95 


4,000 



200 



25,878 
26,502 
75,102 


20,442 
30,794 
54,515 


5,836 
2,228 
8,720 


7,146 
2,580 
9,651 


92 
100 
135 


300 

1,500 

805 


14,467 
14,166 
50,986 
41,373 
62,317 


29,118 
14,230 
26,332 
42,077 
68,250 


4,512 

2,942 

4,063 

13,867 

24,766 


4,703 

2,834 

4,861 

13,110 

21,118 


73 
33 
80 
204 
90 


5,250 

150 

4,240 

5,280 

300 


15,592 
41,493 


17,792 
42,565 


2,457 
4,880 


2,591 
4,157 


80 
80 


3,000 
1,500 


122,934 

189,136 

102,259 

62,099 


101,726 

170,315 

85,765 

36,728 


14,972 

14,527 

13,977 

7,317 


10,100 
8,650 
9,633 
2,837 


240 

186 

197 

28 


660 

1,587 

650 


58,013 

29,266 

135,366 

22,708 


47,006 

32,293 

110,423 

38,227 


12,581 
8,530 

15,716 
4,433 


9,928 

9,292 

22,540 

4,415 


70 
125 
160 

70 


400 

2,750 

650 

150 


69,669 
206,367 
149,108 


69,797 
109,006 
149,072 


11,663 
40,073 
15,334 


17,944 
20,637 
14,863 


400 
400 
240 


1,500 
1,000 
1,150 


15,402 
239,925 

124,173 


12,433 
238,946 
175,188 


61,903 

14,575 


30,929 

16,476 


500 
130 


7,000 
800 



42 











Nature, 








Picnic 


Museums, 


Hiking 




Comfort 


Pit 


Areas 


Exhibit 


Trails 


Boat 


Stations 


Toilets 


(Acres) 


Centres 


(Miles) 


Ramps 



1 

4 
1 



24 


17 


32 


4 


20 


15 


46 


45 


4 


IV2 


11 


5 


22 


10 


18 


— 


21 


6 


8 


2 


20 


5 


14 


2 


32 


5 


36 


38 


18 


30 


38 


22V2 


20 


22 


20 


2V2 


6 


8 


24 


7 


24 


3 


30 


23 


14 


2 


17 


20 


42 


120 


22 


25 


6 


20 


4 


4 


48 


110 


17 


30 



1 

vu 


4 
1 


5V2 


2 
3 


V4 


— 


1 

4 


1 
2 
1 


9 
2 


1 

1 
2 


1 
2 


2 


'A 


1 

1 


- 


2 
2 
1 
1 


V2 
V2 


1 
2 
1 
1 


- 


2 
2 
3 




continued . 



Campers at Oasller Lake Pro\ incial Park. 



43 



RECORD OF PARK USE AND PARK FACILITIES IN 96 PROVINCIAL PARKS 



Park District 



Park Classification 













Svvimmint; 




Visitors 




Campers 


Camping 


Beaches 


1967 


1968 


1967 


1968 


Units 


(Feet) 


135,538 


109,421 


16,654 


22,025 


153 


350 


82,520 


58,210 


3,359 


2,496 


80 


— 


221,003 


235,595 


14,716 


23,342 


425 


2,000 


60,161 


58,009 


6,622 


9,995 


100 


550 


270,505 


274,184 


28,519 


27,374 


725 


2,000 


112,646 


100,964 


15,844 


16,059 


180 


700 


85,840 


71,143 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,025,677 


830,149 


— 


— 


— 


39,000 


98,737 


92,087 


4,183 


2,631 


56 


1,750 


182,420 


277,329 


16,402 


19,413 


266 


1,600 


217,164 


246,698 


18,065 


20,325 


327 


1,600 


498,272 


500,303 


61,645 


72,821 


1,125 


27,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,000 


36,271 


37,372 


5,101 


4,186 


47 


1,900 


597,592 


512,313 


38,389 


36,406 


433 


18,500 


35,158 


33,805 


2,832 


2,529 


168 


1,600 


209,719 


249,949 


14,608 


10,191 


472 


1,200 


74,642 


66,462 


6,552 


6,573 


120 


6,900 


67,614 


42,561 


14,617 


11,028 


172 


3,100 


186,181 


173,820 


18,707 


13,122 


324 


2,000 


65,896 


80,696 


7,762 


6,490 


146 


1,600 


122,395 


130,394 


12,281 


11,434 


215 


— 


3,224 


9,864 


1,604 


1,354 


30 




79,242 


36,244 


8,785 


7,334 


136 


216 


76,327 


43,047 


14,182 


11,167 


234 


1,000 


94,595 


59,666 


19,426 


8,413 


224 


1,400 


16,437 


57,562 


4,288 


12,023 


102 


900 


175,612 


170,454 


29,880 


43,759 


537 


1,650 


312,312 


306,967 


28,139 


55,174 


878 


1,400 


55,375 


43,213 


6,677 


13,415 


256 


1,500 


156,389 


196,370 


15,345 


21,213 


170 


600 


28,086 


41,466 


3,607 


11,109 


229 


4,000 


24,751 


65,111 


6,142 


9,896 


87 


150 



LAKESIMCOE 

Bass Lake Recreational Park 

Devils Glen Recreational Park 

Earl Rowe Recreational Park 

Mara Recreational Park 

Sibbald Point Recreational Park 

Six Mile Lake Recreational Park 

Springwater . ; Recreational Park 

Wasaga Beach Recreational Park 

LAKE ERIE 

Holiday Beach Recreational Park 

Ipperwash Recreational Park 

John E. Pearce Nature Reserve 

Long Point Recreational Park 

Pinery Natural Environment 

Port Bruce Recreational Park 

Rock Point Recreational Park 

Rondeau ' . Natural Environment 

Selkirk Recreational Park 

Turkey Point Natural Environment 

Wheatley Recreational Park 

LAKE HURON 

Craigleith Recreational Park 

Inverhuron Natural Environment 

Point Farms Recreational Park 

Sauble Falls Recreational Park 

NORTH BAY 

Antoine Recreational Park 

Finlayson Point Recreational Park 

Marten River Recreational Park 

Samuel de Champlain Natural Environment 

PARRY SOUND 

Arrowhead Recreational Park 

Grundy Lake Natural Environment 

Killbear Point Natural Environment 

Mikisew Recreational Park 

Oastler Lake Recreational Park 

Restoule Natural Environment 

Sturgeon Bay Recreational Park 



44 











Nature, 








Picnic 


Museums, 


Hiking 




Comfort 


Pit 


Areas 


Exhibit 


Trails 


Boat 


Stations 


Toilets 


(Acres) 


Centres 


(Miles) 


Ramps 



5 

2 

10 

3 

12 



6 

7 

6 
12 



3 

4 
4 
3 



16 
3 

29 
10 
48 
34 
2 



6 

2 

4 

8 

71 

2 

8 

12 

10 

32 

13 



2 

22 
4 
3 



4 
21 
66 
35 



50 
102 
150 
32 
18 
43 
16 



18 
5 

40 

21 V2 
130 

15 

63 
262 



83 

8 

2 
16 
20 

4V2 
15 
40 
12 
29 
33 



12 

I9V2 
10 
9V2 



13 

4V4 
46 
15 



1 

8 

30 

10 

2 

12 



14 



9V2 



2 
4V2 




Children fishing, Kiilarney Provincial Park. 
Trailer site, Restoule Provincial Park. 



continued . 




RECORD OF PARK USE AND PARK FACILITIES IN 96 PROVINCIAL PARKS 



Visitors 



Park District 



Park Classification 



1967 



1968 



Campers 
1967 1968 



Camping 
Units 



Swimming 

Beaches 

(Feet) 



PEMBROKE 

Algonquin Natural Environment 

Bonnechere Recreational Park 

Carson Lake Recreational Park 

Driftwood Recreational Park 

PORT ARTHUR 

Invvood Recreational Park 

Kakabeka Falls Natural Environment 

Middle Falls Recreational Park 

Sibley Natural Environment 

SAULTSTE. MARIE 

Batchavvana Recreational Park 

Lake Superior Natural Environment 

Mississagi Natural Environment 

Pancake Bay Recreational Park 

SIOUX LOOKOUT 

Ojibway Recreational Park 

Pakwash Recreational Park 

SUDBURY 

Chutes Recreational Park 

Fairbank Recreational Park 

Killarney Natural Environment 

Windy Lake Recreational Park 

SWASTIKA 

Esker Lakes Natural Environment 

Kap-Kig-Kvan Natural Environment 

TWEED 

Black Lake Recreational Park 

Bon Echo Natural Environment 

Lake on the Mountain Recreational Park 

Lake St. Peter Recreational Park 

North Beach Recreational Park 

Outlet Beach Natural Environment 

Sandbanks Natural Environment 

WHITE RIVER 

Obatanga Natural Environment 

White Lake Recreational Park 



543,311 

7,959 

5,180 

12,425 


632,823 

10,367 
6,969 
8,860 


26,291 

363,923 

28,746 

27,368 


25,670 

252,125 

35,426 

45,885 


38,502 

145,127 

21,617 

88,183 


21,950 
147,699 

27,577 
124,201 


5,926 
6,475 


1,880 
6,235 


210,131 
78,861 
62,590 
95,073 


64,756 
57,948 
45,524 
71,544 


20,954 
31,842 


20,261 
27,684 


69,941 
138,808 


54,089 
134,769 


33,685 

48,724 

413,895 

75,255 


29,639 

45,009 

379,271 

46,477 


26,257 
127,019 


15,300 
79,429 


9,791,671 


10,192,533 



89,835 
1,641 
5,109 

10,259 

17,138 

29,549 

3,734 

9,550 



37,892 

2,980 

28,849 

1,140 
1,561 

22,354 

12,099 

3,006 

6,033 

3,457 
3,217 

11,878 

19,719 

3,076 
25,096 



13,338 
21 ,041 



115,579 
1,308 
3,302 
6,818 

6,794 

21,831 

3,166 

3,977 



35,727 

3,180 

23,860 

1,239 
1,143 



11,763 
5,545 
3,143 
2,582 

3,536 

3,647 

8,545 
17,767 

2,805 

27,363 



10,177 
14,057 



1,369 
60 
46 
98 

62 
149 

20 
180 



315 

38 

278 



68 

57 

91 
132 
102 

76 

136 
64 

200 

400 

60 
480 



85 
225 



3,900 

1,000 

150 

4,000 

100 
1,800 

2,000 

8,100 
13,200 

1,070 
10,800 



300 
5,300 

550 
1,300 

600 
5,000 

1,200 



500 
2,300 

1,000 

4,000 

10,900 

26,400 



1,600 
3,600 



PROVINCIALTOTALS 



994,787 



1,155,091 



17,201 



304,958 



46 











Nature, 








Picnic 


Museums, 


Hiking 




Comfort 


Pit 


Areas 


Exhibit 


Trails 


Boat 


Stations 


Toilets 


(Acres) 


Centres 


(Miles) 


Ramps 



252 
26 
10 
20 



12 

14 

4 

38 

6 
68 
14 
14 

18 
28 

39 
22 
33 
30 

32 

28 

30 
79 

20 
14 
86 
24 

30 

44 



2 
32 

6 
25 



10 

53V2 
8V4 



7 
7 

10 

12 

2 

100 

35 
30 

10 

35 
4 
5 

60 
200 

40 

10 



3V2 
I5V2 



4V2 
IV2 



1 

IV2 

7 



IV4 



151 



2,577 



2,350V4 



15 



139 



127 




■^^^ 



Beach, Five Mile /.a/ce Provincial Park. 



47 



SUMMARY OF ATTENDANCE FOR INTERPRETIVE PROGRAMMES 



In year ending March 31,1969 



ALGONQUIN PROVINCIAL PARK 




Park Museum (estimated) 


149 days 


199,435 


Pioneer Logging Exhibit 


110 days 


94,473 


Conducted Trips 


59 trips 


4,545 


Labelled Trails 


7 trails 


74,504 


Lectures, A/V Programmes 




49,165 


Special Groups 


33 groups 


1,407 




Total 


423,529 


RONDEAU PROVINCIAL PARK 




Park Museum 


114 days 


25,412 


Conducted Trips 


46 trips 


435 


Lectures 


45 programmes 


1,680 


Special Groups 


44 groups 


940 


Labelled Trails 


3 trails 


no record 




Total 


28,467 



SIBBALD POINT PROVINCIAL PARK 

Museum 



PINERY PROVINCIAL PARK 

Exhibit Centre 

Conducted Trips 

Outdoor Theatre Programmes 

Labelled Trail 

Special Groups 



79 days 
73 trips 
19 programmes 

1 trail 
16 groups 
Total 



QUETICO PROVINCIAL PARK 

Park Museum 

Conducted Trips 

Labelled Trails 

Outdoor Theatre Programmes 

Special Groups 



72 days 
30 trips 
6 trails 
24 programmes 
21 groups 
Total 



SIBLEY PROVINCIAL PARK 

Conducted Trips 

Labelled Trails 

Outdoor Theatre Programmes 



47 trips 
3 trails 
20 programmes 
Total 



17,429 



11,071 

4,488 

8,350 

no record 

527 

24,436 



7,224 
561 

3,312 

2,557 
339 



13,993 



597 
838 

2,096 



3,531 



LAKE SUPERIOR PROVINCIAL PARK 

Conducted Trips 11 trips 173 

Labelled Trails 1 trail 955 

Outdoor Theatre Programmes 14 programmes 2,103 

Total 3,231 



PRESQU'ILE PROVINCIAL PARK 

Park Museum 

Conducted Trips 

Outdoor Theatre Programmes 

Labelled Trails 



94 days 
46 trips 

27 programmes 
2 trails 
Total 



INVERHURON PROVINCIAL PARK 
Exhibit Centre 



Total 



OTHER PROVINCIAL PARKS 

WITH LABELLED TRAILS 

Kap-Kig-lvvan 

Rushing River 

Kettle Lakes 

Lake St. Peter 

Neys 

Blacksand 

McLeod 

Rainbow Falls 

White River 



Kap-Kig-lwan 
Kettle Lakes 
Neys 

Blacksand 
McLeod 
Rainbow Falls 



21 ,601 
704 

5,431 

4,073 

31 ,809 



18,707 



PETERBOROUGH PETROGLYPHS 

166 days 20,000 



DARLINGTON PROVINCIAL PARK 




Pioneer Home 


1,200 


KILLBEAR PROVINCIAL PARK 




Conducted Trips 22 trips 


739 


Outdoor Theatre Programmes 29 programmes 


9,400 


Labelled Trails 1 trail 


5,211 


Total 


15,350 


GRUNDY LAKE PROVINCIAL PARK 




Conducted Trips 11 trips 


199 


Outdoor Theatre Programmes 23 programmes 


6,415 


Labelled Trails 1 trail 


2,358 



8,972 



2,800 
2,000 

480 
3,000 
1,500 

800 
1,000 
2,500 

300 



OTHER PROVINCIAL PARKS 

WITH OUTDOOR THEATRE PROGRAMMES 

19 programmes 



1,388 
4,235 
582 
516 
445 
948 



48 




FOREST 
PROTECTION 
BRANCH 



Forest Protection Branch is divided into two sections with 
duties and responsibilities as follows. 

FOREST PROTECTION 

• Forest Fire Control: Administration of The Forest Fires 
Prevention Act; organization of fire districts and the fire 
warden system; supervision of fire control planning and 
Preparedness; fire prevention programs including a system 
of travel, fire and work permits; co-operative fire preven- 
tion and control agreements with municipalities, railways, 
forest industries and other agencies; detection of forest fires, 
and fire danger warnings; training of staff and co-operators 
in fire control techniques; prescribed burning; co-ordina- 
tion of fire suppression; and movement of resources and 
emergency arrangements. 

• Forest Pest Control: Prevention and control of damage 
by insects, diseases and other pests affecting forests under 
Department management; and advisory services. 

• Communications: Planning, installation and operation of 
radio, telephone and teletype services for fire control and 
other Department requirements; and construction of spe- 
cialized communication equipment. 

• Plant and Fquipment: Planning, budgeting and super- 
vision of Departmental construction, equipment and sign 
programs; inventory of Department establishments; liaison 
with Department of Public Works; prescribing equipment 
complements, maintenance and replacement standards; 
and vehicle records, licensing and insurance. 

AIR SERVICE 

Operation of a fleet of aircraft to meet flying requirements 
of the Department and special needs of other Government 
Departments; selection and training of pilots and air engi- 
neers; deployment of aircraft and crews; establishment of 
airbases, fuel distribution and caches; selection of aircraft 
equipment and development of special equipment; leasing 
and disposition of helicopters and other aircraft; checking 
pilot proficiency; and the overhaul and maintenance of 
aircraft. 



49 



FOREST PROTECTION 
SECTION 

FOREST FIRE CONTROL 

FOREST FIRE OCCURRENCE 

For the second consecutive year, the Province of Ontario 
experienced a relatively light fire season. A total of 1,219 
fires burned 9,478 acres, and fire damage was correspond- 
ingly low. Acreage burned proved to be the second lowest 
since the inception of formal Provincial fire records in 
1917. Of the 1,219 fires, 89 per cent were controlled at 10 
acres or less in size, and 10 per cent between 10.1 and 100 
acres. Except for one 750-acre occurrence, the remaining 
one per cent were in the 100-500 acre range. 

Fire danger conditions commenced very early in the 
season, and burning index ratings reached extreme on many 
occasions throughout the spring period. During April and 
May, fires occurred at a record-setting pace, and by May 
31st 854, or 70 per cent of the season's fires, had occurred 
and 8,957 acres, or 95 per cent of the season's total acreage, 
had burned. With the advent of cool, rainy weather in early 
June, fire danger conditions were favourably modified and 
they remained so throughout the balance of the fire season. 

When related to the previous five-, and 10-year fire 
occurrence averages for the Province, the 1968 total of 
1,219 fires is 74 per cent of the former and 82 per cent of 
the latter. 

The area burned, which was 9,478 acres, was 26 per cent 
of the previous five-year average of 36,416 acres and six 
per cent of the 10-year figure of 145,393 acres. 

Forest recreation continued to lead all other causal agen- 
cies as the major cause of forest fires in Ontario. 

FIRE CONTROL OPERATIONS 

The 7.7-acre average fire size for 1969 compares quite 
favourably with the previous 10-year figure of 10.8 acres 
and reflects the benefits of the early detection and fast hard- 
hitting initial attack concept adopted in the Province. 

The basic Land and Forests suppression force, comprised 
of 120 five-, or seven-man unit crews strategically located 
across the fire districts, took initial action on 752 fires. 
Municipal forces, organized under the fire warden system, 
initially attacked 241 outbreaks. The public, timber licen- 
cees and other agencies initially dealt with 226 fires. Water 
bombing again proved successful on many fires. Of the 
water dropping actions taken, 24 comprised the initial 
attack. 



Aerial detection operational evaluation programs con- 
tinued in six districts. Results indicated that organized de- 
tection systems, using aircraft supplemented by towers, can 
provide the required coverage in an efficient manner. Such 
systems will become operational in four of these districts in 
1969. Evaluation programs will continue in the other two 
districts, and a further two will begin the operational study 
process. 

TRAINING 

The Fire Suppression Course I program was conducted by 
local staff on a Regional rather than a Provincial basis, as in 
previous years. Some sixty personnel were graduated from 
the program, bringing the total to 381 since the inception 
of the course in 1952. 

Three senior staff members attended a national fire 
simulator course organized by the Associate Committee on 
Forest Fire Protection and presented by the Alberta Forest 
Service. One attended the United States Forest Service 
four-week fire management program. 

A portable fire simulator unit was built for use in training 
initial-attack Fire Bosses. The device presents a fire scene, 
and through a series of audio and visual inputs a "like-real" 
fire problem is created. Trainees act as fire boss and direct 
a control action. 

A further 36 fire personnel attended the Department's 
Fire Weather Course. 

FIRE PREVENTION 

The first in a series of audio/visual 35 MM slide tape pre- 
sentations on forest fire prevention planned for use in 
Provincial Parks and in other areas of the prevention pro- 
gram came into use. This initial presentation, comprising 
62 slides, is approximately eight minutes in length and 
covers the safe use of fire while in the forest. 

The film "Flames in the Forest", originally produced in 
1963, which portrays fire control operations as conducted 
in Ontario, was revamped and updated. 

A four-minute radio program, oriented to forest fire 
prevention, was broadcast on the northern Ontario network 
of the C.B.C. each weekday during the fire season. The pro- 
gram outlined the daily forest fire danger and occurrence 
situation in the Province and provided the opportunity for 
staff to give timely prevention messages. It will be con- 
tinued in 1969. 

DEVELOPMENT WORK 

The possibilities of incorporating the use of long-term fire 
retardant chemicals into control operations were examined. 
Tests involving aircraft, equipped with the integral float 
tank system, and truck tankers indicated that such chemi- 



50 



cals would enhance our control capabilities. Studies are to 
continue in 1969. 

PRESCRIBED BURNING 

Some 4,515 acres were burned by 28 prescribed fires, 
mainly for purposes of preparing sites for silvicultural treat- 
ment and reducing slash hazard situations. 

GENERAL 

The following publications were printed during 1968: 
Sferics, Radar, Thunder Report, Lightning Storm Tracking 
System. 

A Report on the Infra-Red Forest Fire Detection and 
Mapping System. 

An Analysis of 1967 Detection Evaluation and Improve- 
ment Programs in Kenora and Fort Frances Districts. 
Kenora Detection Program 1968. 

Under the national mutual-aid arrangement, two teams 
of fire supervisors were dispatched and saw action in 
Alberta during their May fire emergency situation. 

A Swastika District crew were again the winners of the 
Provincial Nozzle Crew Competition. The competition, 
which involves all fire crews through a series of playdowns, 
serves to maintain a high level of preparedness and esprit 
de corps within the basic fire organization. 

PLANNING 

in 1968, a new Planning Unit was set up under the Protec- 
tion Section of the Branch. The Unit will be responsible for 
the development of long-range provincial forest fire con- 
trol plans and will provide technical guidance in planning 
at the Regional and District levels. 

FOREST PEST CONTROL 

SURVEYS 

The insect presenting the greatest threat to Ontario's forests 
is the spruce budworm, and the new outbreaks, which were 
reported in 1967, continued in 1968. The area of greatest 
concern, west and south of the Shebandowan Lakes in Port 
Arthur Forest District, developed as predicted in late 1967 
to an area of about 275,000 acres. Because of the well- 
defined nature of this infestation and the high forest values 
at stake, it was sprayed in 1968 (see section on Control). 
The objective in spraying was to completely eliminate the 
infestation, and while the project was generally successful, 
a dangerous residual population of budworm remained in 
a core area of almost 35,000 acres. This area will be studied 
closely for possible further control operations in 1969. A 
small infestation of long-standing in the French Lake area 



of Fort Frances Forest District was also sprayed, and it too 
still has a potentially dangerous residual population. Apart 
from the French Lake area and the Shebandowan-Burchell 
Lake area, the budworm was not a problem in northwestern 
Ontario. 

However, the spruce budworm was quite active in many 
areas in other parts of the Province. In northeastern On- 
tario, the insect was especially noticeable northeast of the 
Town of Chapleau, along the Chapleau-Kapuskasing District 

On the fire line, communications are by radio. 




boundary, and immediately west of the City of Sudbury. 
Because of the scattered nature of these developing out- 
breaks and the relatively low economic importance of the 
stands containing balsam and white spruce, it was not 
feasible to aerial-spray with msecticide in an attempt to 
prevent their development 

In southeastern Ontario, the budworm also caused notice- 
able defoliation of white spruce and balsam trees through- 
out many sections of the Ottawa Valley from Mattawa to 
Ottawa, and into some areas south and southeast of Ottawa. 

The jack-pine budworm, a close relative of the spruce 
budworm, has occurred in large numbers in many areas of 
the Province since 1966. in 1968, there was some reduction 
in activity of this insect in northwestern Ontario, but it still 
caused severe defoliation of jack-pine stands over about 
one-half of Kenora Forest District. Some top-killing of trees 
occurred on poor sites. The insect also caused considerable 
defoliation throughout parts of central and eastern Ontario, 
notably at locations in the Forest Districts of Sault Ste. 
Marie, Sudbury, Parry Sound, North Bay and Pembroke. In 
High-value stands, such as at the Kirkwood Unit of Sault 
Ste. Marie where it is defoliating red pine as well, and near 
Lake Traverse in the Pembroke district, the budworm is 
being observed carefully for possible need for spraying in 
1969. Outbreaks of this insect are not usually sustained to 
the point of causing significant mortality of trees. 

The forest tent caterpillar epidemic, which in 1967 occur- 
red mainly in poplar stands in the Fort Frances and Sault Ste. 
Marie districts, declined to a relatively unimportant level 
in 1968. Populations persisted in an area of about 400 
square miles surrounding the town of Fort Frances, and in 
an area of almost 800 square miles along the southern 
portion of the Sault Ste. Marie district. In 1969, the out- 
break should decline further. 

In 1968, the European pine sawfly did not add significantly 
to its range in an easterly direction, and the eastern extrem- 
ity remained in the area of Belleville and Prince Edward 
County. Since its introduction to Ontario near Windsor 
about 1940, it had been spreading eastward at a rate of 15 
to 20 miles each year. The insect occurs also on Manitoulin 
Island, and in 1968 was found for the first time on orna- 
mental plantings in the Cities of North Bay and Sault Ste. 
Marie. 

The saddled prominent is an insect which defoliates 
hardwood stands in a spectacular fashion similar to the 
forest tent caterpillar. Prior to 1967, noticeable outbreaks 
of this insect in Ontario had been recorded on only two or 
three occasions. In 1967, woodlots in three townships sur- 
rounding Orillia were infested, and in three townships near 
Owen Sound. In 1968, some of these outbreaks expanded 



and new centres developed with the result that severe 
defoliation occurred in Eastnor, Albemarle and Keppel 
Townships in the Lake Huron district, and in Oro and 
Medonte Townships and on Christian and Beckwith Islands 
m the Lake Simcoe district. The latter district also had lesser 
infestations in Adjala, Tiny, Whitchurch and Uxbridge 
Townships. Of particular interest was a new outbreak of 
about 1,000 square miles in the eastern part of the Parry 
Sound district, extending into the western portion of Algon- 
quin Provincial Park. Although the current outbreaks of 
the saddled prominent are by far the most severe ever re- 
corded in Ontario, past experience here and in the U.S.A. 
indicates that it persists for only two or three years in any 
locality and therefore seldom causes permanent injury to 
trees. 

The most noticeable tree disease in Ontario is the Dutch 
elm disease. There was little extension of range during 1968, 
probably because the disease is as far north as Sudbury and 
Sault Ste. Marie, and further spread northward into the 
northern forests, where elm is a minor species, will be 
much slower. 

The Scleroderris canker, a relatively new problem which 
often kills red and jack pine seedlings, did not increase in 
intensity or range during 1968. On the other hand, Fomes 
annosus root rot, a serious threat to the management of 
pine plantations, was found for the first time in the impor- 
tant Larose Forest, Kemptville Forest District. It is now 
known to occur in parts of the Lake Erie, Lake Simcoe, 
Lindsay and Kemptville districts. Steps are being taken to 
limit the spread of outbreak centres and to prevent further 
infections. 

In 1968, a dying-back of branches was very noticeable 
in mature and over-mature stands of yellow birch over a 
total area of about 2,500 square miles in the Sault Ste. Marie 
district and in Algonquin Park, giving the trees a greyish 
appearance when viewed from a distance. The most ap- 
parent explanation is that the extremely heavy seed crop 
of 1967 resulted in poorly formed buds near the branch 
tips, and most branch tips died. Most of the trees are 
expected to recover. 

CONTROL OPERATIONS 

Immediately following World War II, the insecticide DDT 
became established as the most efficient and versatile in- 
secticide ever discovered, and consequently revolutionized 
pest control around the world. However, its durability or 
persistence lead to controversies in many countries con- 
cerning the long-term effects on other living things, particu- 
larly fish and wildlife. Early in 1968, the Department became 
one of the first government agencies in Canada to discon- 
tinue completely the use of DDT. 



52 



The aerial spraying project in the Port Arthur district, to 
eliminate the developing spruce budworm epidemic, con- 
stituted the largest, single insect control project ever under- 
taken by the Department. Eighteen privately owned stear- 
man spray planes, operating in four teams and guided by 
Cessna aircraft, sprayed a single area of 275,000 acres. The 
area received one application of fenitrothion of 6 oz. of 
chemical in approximately one-fifth gallon of water per 
acre, followed by a second application of phosphamidon at 
4 oz. per acre. The rates were chosen carefully to give maxi- 
mum control of the budworm, with an acceptable hazard to 
wildlife. Special field studies, before, during and after the 
spraying, confirmed that these rates did not kill fish or affect 
bird population, and yet gave good control of the budworm. 

The year 1968 also saw the Department's first attempt to 
control the jack-pine budworm. A total of 1,000 acres in 
two parks in the Kenora district were sprayed by aircraft, 
using fenitrothion. 

The regular program to control the white-pine weevil 
continued in 1968, with approximately 6,000 acres being 
treated with aerial and ground spraying equipment, and by 
hand-clipping and burning infested leading shoots. About 
two-thirds of the treated area was sprayed by aircraft using 
the insecticide methoxychlor, which represents the first 
such use In Canada. 

Approximately 5,200 acres of pine and spruce plantations 
were sprayed for control of sawflies, principally the red- 
headed pine sawfly, the yellow-headed spruce sawfly, 
European pine sawfly, and the jack-pine sawfly. 

About 400 acres of sod-covered sites were treated for 
control of white grubs, and a similar acreage on similar sites 
for control of mice where these pests threaten the survival 
of newly planted trees. 

The major tree-killing disease in the forests of Ontario is 
the blister rust of white pine. A substantial disease-control 
program has been in progress for several years in specific 
areas managed for production of white pine. The disease is 
controlled by using the herbicide 2,4, 5-T to kill the obligate 
alternate host plants, wild currants and gooseberries, in the 
immediate vicinity of the pines. In 1968, about 6,700 acres 
of high-value young white pine stands were protected 
against the rust in parts of the Sault Ste. Marie, North Bay, 
Pembroke, Lindsay, Tweed and Kemptville districts. 

The occurrence of Fomes annosus root rot in plantations 
of southern Ontario is prevented by the application of 
sodium nitrite to the freshly cut surface of stumps during 
thinning operations. This program is increasing with the 
aim of treating all stumps in southern areas with the 
chemical. In 1968, more than 1,800 acres were treated. 



COMMUNICATIONS 

Resultant from favourable evaluation of Telex installations 
at 10 district office points as well as at Head Office, in 1967, 
all 21 district offices were installed during the 1968 season 
and Telex became the main point-to-point communication 
medium for the province. Both H.F. and V.H.F. radio con- 
tinued in use throughout the field mainly for uses other 
than the above service but, additionally, as a back-up for 
the Telex. 

VHP radiotelephone installations were made at Christmas 
Lake Park in the Sault Ste. Marie district and at Earl Rowe 
Park and Vivian County Forest Headquarters, both in the 
Lake Simcoe district. Total number of ground radio stations 
in the system now numbers 176 headquarters, parks etc. 

Major radio purchases consisted of 10 aircraft VOR navi- 
gation systems, six aircraft VHF communication transceivers, 
seven aircraft Single Sideband transceivers, one aircraft 
Transponder installation, two fifty watt VHF radiotele- 
phones, three twenty-five-watt radiotelephones, 44 low 
powered VHF radiotelephones, 24 fifty-watt VHF fire-base 
camp portables, one 120-watt Single Sideband base station 
transceiver, and six Single Sideband low powered portable 
sets. 



1968 inventory by quantity and types of equipment used 
was: 



352 Lookout tower VHF radiotelephones 

618 Mobile VHF radiotelephones 

16 Patrol vessel radiotelephones (H.F. and/or VHF) 

1344 Portable radiotelephones of all types and power out- 
puts, both H.F. and VHF. 

339 Fixed location ground station radio-telephones of all 
types and powers, both HF and VHF. 

41 Aircraft Radio Installations (5 systems per aircraft.) 

74 Portable VHF aircraft installations for installation in 
other than Government aircraft. 



20 Aircraft Ground Hailers 



2804 Units in total. 



53 



FOREST FIRES BY CAUSES, 1968 

General Causes Fires Acres 

Lightning 79 194 

Industrial — Logging 18 630 

Industrial— Other 44 355 

Recreation 356 1804 

Railway 141 1 506 

Railway 141 1506 

Incendiary 32 313 

Miscellaneous 270 2622 

Unknown 17 61 

TOTAL 1219 9478 



Sources 

of Ignition Fires 

Lightning 79 

Smoking Material 325 

Camp Fires 117 

Grass Burn 76 

Rubbish Burning 70 

Unknown 64 

Matches 127 

Brush Burn 42 

Garbage Dump Burn 49 

Right-of-Way Burning 15 

Brake Shoe 72 

Diesel Locomotive 33 

Steam Locomotive — 

Hot Box 3 

Fusee 2 

Tie Burning — 

Structural Fires 29 

Power Line (Short Circuit) 26 

Sparks from Chimney 6 

Fireworks 25 

Power Saw 1 

Mechanical Equipment 12 

Sparks from Burner 3 

Sawdust Pile Burning — 

Burning Bulldozed Piles 7 

Explosives 1 

Dumped Live Coals or Ashes 8 

Miscellaneous (Known) 27 

Prescribed Burning — 

TOTAL 1,219 



Responsible Croups, 



Fires 



Lightning 79 

Fishermen 120 

Children 164 

Car Passenger 124 

Unknown 96 

Berry Picker 21 

Camper 30 

Resident Rural 129 

Hunter 17 

Farmer 50 

Private Cottager 46 

Hiker 29 

Resident Urban 12 

Other Industrial Employee 11 

R. R. Section Crew 16 

R. R. Train Crew 115 

R. R. Work Crew 5 

Canoeist 8 

Picknicker 9 

Commercial Resort Owner 9 

Guided Party — 

Train Passenger 2 

Indian (on reserve) 14 

Timber Cruiser — 

Woods Industry Employee 18 

Land Survey Party — 

Trapper 5 

Prospector 2 

Mining Employee 6 

Pipeline Employee — 

Hydro Employee 6 

Highway or Road Employee 8 

Municipal Employee 5 

Telephone Co. Employee 1 

Military 1 

Miscellaneous 49 

Lands & Forests Employee 1 

Other Provincial Gov't Employee — 

Federal Government Employee 1 

Youth Groups 10 

TOTAL 1,219 



54 




II 

Suppressing forest fire with water pumped from nearby lake. 

FOREST FIRES BY DISTRICTS, 1968 

Forest District Fires Acres 

Sioux Lookout 38 104 

Kenora 92 609 

Fort Frances 16 160 

Port Arthur 46 240 

Ceraldton 29 32 

White River 27 45 

Kapuskasing 52 200 

Cochrane 28 1,445 

Swastika 66 939 

Chapleau 19 33 

Sault Ste. Marie 32 96 

Sudbury 121 1,166 

North Bay 113 910 

Parry Sound 144 636 

Pembroke 130 1,102 

Tweed 140 1,213 

Kemptville 12 14 

Lindsay 86 468 

Lake Huron 11 17 

Lake Simcoe 21 49 

TOTAL 1,219 9,478 



FOREST FIRES BY MONTHS, 1968 

Month Fires Acres 

March 6 75 

April 394 4,156 

May 454 4,744 

June 66 45 

luly 164 243 

August 107 123 

September 16 11 

October 5 3 

November 7 78 

TOTAL 1,219 7,478 

FOREST FIRES BY SIZE, 1968 

Size Fires 

V4 acre and under 481 

Over 'A acre to 10 acres 602 

Over 10 acres to 100 acres 118 

Over 100 acres to 500 acres 17 

Over 500 acres 1 

TOTAL 1,219 

FOREST FIRES BY MEANS OF 
DETECTION, 1968 

Means of Detection Fires 

Lands & Forests Fire Tower 275 

Lands & Forests Aircraft 53 

Commercial Aircraft 19 

Private Aircraft 5 

Lands & Forests Personnel 93 

Other Provincial Gov't Employee 35 

Outside Agency Fire Tower 1 

Other Public 737 

TOTAL 1,219 



55 



STATEMENT OF FIRE DAMAGE, 1968 



Forest District 



Merchantable 
Cu. ft. 



Forest Losses 
$ 



Immature 
Losses 



Non-Forest 

Losses 

$ 



Total 
Losses 

$ 



Sioux Lookout 46,018 

Kenora 38,163 

Fort Frances 

Port Arthur 9,960 

Ceraldton 

Kapuskasing 

Cochrane 125,885 

Swastika 

White River 1,360 

Chapleau 8,075 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Sudbury 768 

North Bay 17,935 

Parry Sound 15,503 

Pembroke 

Tweed 8,661 

Kemptville 200 

Linu:.dy 

Lake Huron 



1,846 
1,708 



580 



742 

41 
78 

180 
155 
492 

3,278 
16 



1,667 
4,188 



870 
150 

1,625 

1,000 

750 

38 

2,150 

8,237 

1,510 

5,612 

3,201 

4,184 

3 

5,663 



117 



153 

52 

247 

233 

2,346 

145 

288 
590 



3,630 
5,896 

1,453 
150 



2,520 

1,052 

1,038 

116 

2,383 

10,763 

1,810 

6,104 

3,489 

8,052 

19 

5,663 



Lake bimcoe 


100 


8 






8 


TOTAL 


272,628 


9,124 


40,848 


4,174 


54,146 




AIR SERVICE SECTION 

During the fiscal year, five DeHavilland Turbo Beavers and 
one Model 60 Beechcraft Duke were purchased. Five piston- 
powered Beavers and one Grumman Super Widgeon were 
sold by public tender. 

The "Ontario Integral Float Water Bombing System" was 
installed in four of the new aircraft bringing the total water 
bomber fleet to ten Otters, twenty-seven Turbo Beavers and 
one Twin Otter. One Turbo Beaver is equipped with 
amphibious wheel-floats and is capable of operation from 
water or airports. 

Gelgard fire retardant dispensing systems are installed in 
thirty-four of the water bombers, i.e. six Otters, twenty- 
seven Turbo Beavers and one Twin Otter. Experimental 
testing using Phoscheck 202 and Firetrol long term fire re- 
tardants were carried out in water bombing aircraft; these 
tests will continue in 1969-70. 

Twin Turbo Otter on patrol. 



56 



HOURS FLOWN ON VARIOUS PHASES OF FLYING OPERATIONS, 1968-69 



Commercial 



Lands & Forests 
Aircraft 



Fixed 
Wing 



Helicopter 
(Contract) 



Total 



Helicopter 




(Other) 






2,431:55 


28:15 


1,260:25 


— 


274:15 


28:15 


3,966:35 


6:35 


1,728:55 


5:15 


4,428:00 


10:00 


885:35 


— 


651:10 


— 


367:05 


— 


940:05 


1:30 


4,973:10 



Detection 1,251 :05 1,180:50 

Suppression 572:05 67:55 

Water Dropping 271:30 2:45 

Fire Ranging, Total 2,094:40 1,251:30 

Timber 1,334:35 50:55 

Fish & Wildlife 3,988:05 150:40 

Lands 544:05 76:40 

Parks 571 :25 4:30 

Research 352:20 14:00 

Interdepartmental Flying 895:55 31:00 

Administration 4,675:00 3:00 

Total 14,456:05 1,582:15 



592:10 



592:10 
336:50 
284:00 
254:50 

75:15 
:45 

13:10 
293:40 



1,850:40 



51:35 



17,940:35 



Lands & Forests 
Aircraft 



Administration 

Mercy Flights 13:30 

Tests (Radio & Aircraft) — 

Ferrying & Instruction 224:00 

Entomology 102:10 

Forced Landing & Operations 985:35 

Transportation 3,349:45 

Surveys — 

Administration, Total 4,675:00 



Fixed 
Wing 



3:00 



Commercial 



Helicopter 
(Contract) 



8:10 

224:35 

7:50 
53:05 



Helicopter 
(Other) 



1:30 



Total 



21:40 

448:35 

102:10 

993:25 

3,407:20 



3:00 



293:40 



1:30 



4,973:10 



Twenty-six bases were in operation during the fire sea- 
son. Twelve bases, using nineteen aircraft, operated year 
round to provide the flying service necessary in resources 
management. 

Five Bell 47G4 model Helicopters were leased from May 
1st to September 30th to provide transportation in forest 
fire fighting. 



Total flying time for the year was 14,456:05 hours; 
total passengers carried, 32,062; and total loads carried, 
11,427,706.00 pounds. 

Mercy and Ambulance Flights, totalling 20:55 hours, were 
carried out by aircraft and helicopters. There were no re- 
quests from other provinces for assistance during fire emer- 
gencies under the co-operative mutual aid program. 



57 



MERCY AND EMERGENCY FLIGHTS, 1968-69 

Date Aircraft Pilot Journey 

May 11/68 CF-OEC CRAM Chapleau-Toronto 

May 21/68 CF-OEO TURCOTTE Cogama-Soulh 

Porcupine 

June 13/68 CF-OER SWANT Kenoganni-New 

Liskeard 

June 26/68 CF-OED CAMPBELL Parley Lake- 

Pembroke 

July 22/68 CF-OEE PHILLIPS Fushimi Lake- 

Carey Lake 

Aug. 2/68 CF-OED CAMPBELL Smoke Lake- 

Haliburton 

Aug, 5/68 CF-OED CAMPBELL White Lake- 

Canoe Lake 

Sept. 21/68 CF-OFY BURTT PortArthur- 

Hurckett 

Jan. 1/69 CF-OEX TURCOT! Gogama-Timmins 

9 Mercy Flights (Aircraft). Total 12:45 

Date Helicopter Pilot Journey 

May 12/68 CF-SCD FLUCKER Sudbury-Achray 

July 4/68 CF-DHL BOYD Headpond Lake- 

Blmd River 

July 9/68 CF-DHL BOYD Peshu Lake- 

local 

3 Mercy Flights (Helicopter). Total 8:10 

58 



Time Reason 



5:35 Flew 6 year old girl 
with skull fracture. 

2 year old child with 
1:05 respiratory problems. 

:50 Dept. of Mines em- 
ployee — respiratory 
problems. 

1:00 Boy Scout leader with 
injured back. 

:20 Injured Junior 
Ranger. 

:50 12 year old boy 
with broken arm. 

:30 Girl with cut to 
head. 

1:05 Search for 2 lost 
hunters. 

1:30 Seriously ill infant 
child. 



Time Reason 



6:05 Search for drowned 
person. 

1 :30 Injured man flown 
to hospital. 

:35 Injured man flown 
to hospital. 




LANDS 

AND 

SURVEYS 

BRANCH 



Lands and Surveys Branch is divided into four sections with 
duties and responsibilities as follows. 

LANDS 

Administration of public lands and their disposition by sale, 
patent, vesting order, quit claim deed, lease, licence of 
occupation, or land use permit; release of reservations in 
patents, assignments and cancellations; and reservation of 
lands for public and government uses. 

LAND ACQUISITION AND PLANNING 

Recommendations and applications for purchase of private 
lands for public uses; development and co-ordination of 
land use plans in all districts for the management of renew- 
able, natural resources; Recreational Land Inventory Sector 
of Canada Land Inventory; co-ordination of departmental 
A.R.D.A. projects; and liaison with Department of Agricul- 
ture and Food in private lands and with other Departments 
on the socio-economic implications of land use objectives. 

SURVEYS 

Examination, recording and custody of original plans and 
field notes of restoration of original Crown survey points, 
retracement and municipal surveys, and surveys of Crown 
lands for disposition; map compilation; authorization of 
geographical names; and distribution of maps, publications 
and copies of survey records. 

ENGINEERING 

Approval of dams; licences of occupation for dams; flood- 
ing and diversions; water resource management; issuance 
and servicing of Water Power Lease Agreements; engineer- 
ing consultations; feasibility studies, inspections, reports, 
planning for fish culture stations, wetland developments, 
fishways and other fish and wildlife projects; and access 
roads. 



59 



LANDS SECTION 

The primary function of the Section is to provide the nrieans 
whereby individuals and corporations may obtain the public 
lands they require for various purposes. The usual require- 
ments are for living space (either full-time or part-time 
residence) and for commercial or industrial uses. Public 
land may be transferred to private ownership for any pur- 
pose except the propagation of the renewable, natural re- 
sources administered by the Department. This excludes uses 
such as tree farming, fish farming and game farming, and 
large areas for private recreational use. 

To carry out this operation, the Section must study land 
values, answer enquiries, and plan for the orderly and effi- 
cient disposal of lands as nearly as possible in tune with 
the requirements of the population and the economy. Plans 
for disposal must also ensure that provision is made to pre- 
serve adequate areas of land for public and government 
uses. 

Public lands are transferred to private control by sale or 
rental. The use to be made of the land is always a prime 
consideration. Except for rental by Land Use Permits, the 
applicant is required to spend two to ten times the estab- 
lished land value on improvements within a limited time 
before title passes to him. Thus, the actual price of the land 
is always considered as secondary to the economic advan- 
tages accruing from the new development. 

Land Transactions 



Year Ending 



Land Use 
Permits 



All Other 
Transactions 



Total 



March 31, 1969 


4930 


3140 


8070 


March 31, 1968 


4747 


2693 


7440 


March 31,1967 


4555 


2756 


7311 


March 31, 1966 


4382 


2481 


6863 


March 31, 1965 


4436 


2720 


7156 



The increase in lands transactions is almost entirely in 
the recreation sector — cottages, hunting camps and fishing 
camps. There is also an increasing interest in the develop- 
ment of landing strips or airports on public land. Requests 
come from municipalities, from interested civic groups and 
from Indian Bands. 

During the year, a program to operate garbage disposal 
sites, serving the unorganized areas of the province, got 
under way. At the year's end, 231 disposal sites were being 
maintained by the Department. In co-operation with local 
health units, a number of unsatisfactory sites have been 



closed, and new sites have been established. This is a very 
necessary program which must be extended. Such facilities, 
strategically located and well maintained, are necessary in 
coping with the problems associated with littering. 

Two new restricted areas were set up to control and reg- 
ulate all improvements on land in unorganized townships 
near the communities of Chapleau and Temagami. Pre- 
liminary studies of areas adjacent to the communities of 
Cochrane, Shebandowan and Timmins were started, for 
the same purpose. There are now twelve restricted areas 
covering about 2,500 square miles in all. 

LAND ACQUISITION 
AND PLANNING SECTION 

The Section was formed in 1963 to implement the pro- 
gram announced in the Speech From the Throne in the 
Fall Session of 1962. This program anticipated the expen- 
diture of $200 million over a twenty-year period for the 
purchase of land for recreation, wildlife management, 
parks, reforestation and other resource management uses. 

Since the inception of the program, 340,848 acres had 
been acquired by March 31, 1969. During the 1968-69 fiscal 
year. Treasury Board approved 30 projects involving the 
purchase of 218,606 acres of land. The Ontario Parks Inte- 
gration Board approved 39 projects involving purchase of 
18,822 acres of land. A total of 83 leases were acquired in 
Algonquin Provincial Park and at Rondeau Provincial Park 
in keeping with the policy to revert these areas to a wilder- 
ness state and to permit public, rather than private, use of 
certain areas. 

Included in the land acquisition program are eight pro- 
jects that are approved under the A.R.D.A. agreement. Dur- 
ing 1968-69, 28,586 acres were acquired under the A.R.D.A. 
agreement. 

The Canada Land Inventory is a joint Federal-Provincial 
project carried out by the Ontario Land Inventory Unit. 
Under this program, the lands within the A.R.D.A. Agree- 
ment Area are evaluated in terms of their capability to 
produce forest, wildlife (ungulates) and recreational prod- 
ucts. During the 1968-69 fiscal year, the program was 
continued, and a total of 16 map sheets at a scale of 
1:250,000 were mapped and submitted to Ottawa for pub- 
lication. 

The Public Lands Act was amended by the inclusion of 
Part 1A to provide for the designation of public forest roads 
and for the use of private forest roads by the public. 



60 



Emphasis to date has been placed on devising uniform pro- 
cedures tor the implementation of this amendment, as funds 
for entering into shared-cost agreements with the occupiers 
of private forest roads will not be available until the com- 
mencement of the next fiscal year. 

Ten roads comprising 197 miles are presently designated 
as public forest roads. 

SURVEYS SECTION 

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 

The main responsibilities discharged by the Subsection are 
the custody of survey records and the distribution of re- 
productions for sale and official use, and the distribution 
and sale of maps and publications produced by the Depart- 
ment as well as the maps produced by the Federal Depart- 
ment of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa. 

The quantity of map sheets distributed of the Provincial 
Topographic Series, at the scale of one inch equals two 
miles, more than doubled over the previous fiscal year. 
Seven new First Edition sheets and one Second Edition sheet 
were received for distribution. Forty-six new map sheets of 
the National Topographic Series produced by the Surveys 
and Mapping Branch of the Federal Government increased 
the quantity of this series distributed by ten per cent over 
the past year. 

Lake Temagami, North Bay Forest District. 





Maps of the Territorial Series again decreased in demand 
due mainly to the availability of the additional larger-scaled 
topographic sheets on the grid system as well as the substi- 
tution of the free map brochure of Algonquin Provincial 
Park for the two-mile-to-one-inch map. Number 47A, which 
became out of print. 

The numbers of survey records, plans and field notes of 
summer cottage lot subdivisions and retracement surveys 
being recorded, catalogued and stored in the Survey Records 
Library are also steadily increasing annually. 

The demand for reproductions of tracings showing the 
survey fabric of the interior of Townships, Crown summer 
cottage lot subdivisions, retracement surveys, area plans on 
the Forest Resources Inventory grid system and surveyors' 
field notes of surveys made on Crown lands, by the contact 
dry process and photostat methods as well as map mounting 
requirements for all Branch and District field office pur- 
poses also contributed to the increased work load of this 
year. 

CARTOGRAPHIC MAPPING 

PROVINCIAL TOPOGRAPHIC SERIES 

This series of maps at one-inch-to-two-mile scale continued 
with the production of six additional maps and one revised 
map sheet as follows: Batchawana, Wakomata Lake, Thessa- 
lon, Sault Ste. Marie, Biscotasing and Bark Lake, with the 
revised Cogama sheet being lithographed in four colours. 
The Ontario Co-ordinate System Grid was introduced on 
both the Biscotasing and Bark Lake sheets. 

TERRITORIAL MAPS 

Though total coverage of the province at one-inch-to-eight- 
mile scale was accomplished with the completion of the 
plate positives for Map 26, "Kenora Patricia Portion N.E.", 
the map was withheld from printing pending the resolution 
of the limits of Polar Bear Provincial Park. 

SPECIAL MAPPING 

At the request of Research Branch, Map 3269, "Vegetation 
Patterns of the Hudson Bay Lowlands", was produced in five 
colours. Measuring 40" x 50", the one-inch-to-ten mile map 
portrays the delicate yet valuable vegetation vital to the 
existence of wildlife in the area. 

Assistance to other branches and departments was also 
given in the compilation and production of maps of urgent 
or special nature. These included the preparation of basis 
suitable for whiteprint reproduction of the Trent Watershed 
land status maps at one inch to two miles, to indicate the 
various classification of public lands as requested by the 



61 



Department of Tourism and Information; the Boundary 
Waters Study area at 1:125,000; and the regular annual 
production of the Hunting and Fishing Regulation Map 
folders which were produced in three colours. 

ONTARIO MAP CATALOGUE 

At the request of the Deputy Ministers Council, compilation 
of a catalogue of maps produced by all provincial mapping 
agencies was begun with the selection of a format and cata- 
loguing system. Three thousand source documents were 
distributed to provincial departments and commissions to 
solicit entries for the catalogue. 

An Index Map of the Forest Resources Inventory Map 
series was produced in two colours for inclusion in this 
catalogue. 

TOPONYMY 

The Ontario Geographic Names Board Act, 1968, provides 
for the establishment and functions of The Ontario Geo- 
graphic Names Board which is responsible for the control of 
geographic nomenclature in Ontario for the preparation of 
maps or other publications intended for official or public 
use. The Board is to gather, collate, recommend and record 
place names and geographical features and to collaborate 
with the Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographic 
Names, the federal authority for toponymy in Canada. 

During this fiscal year, eighty-eight maps and charts on 
various scales were edited for correct nomenclature for 
various federal and provincial agencies, an increase of fifty- 
seven per cent over the previous year. Approximately 1,500 
new names were recommended for approval, and 2,220 new 
entries were added to the geographic names index records. 
The addition of geographical co-ordinates to the index was 
commenced. 

LEGAL SURVEYS EXAMINATION 

Legal Surveys Subsection carries out drafting and plan exam- 
ination and prepares instructions for surveys carried out by 
departmental surveyors, as well as for all surveys carried out 
by private surveyors to meet the needs of the retracement, 
restoration, subdivision and inspection programs. 

All plans of survey, or plans compiled from available 
information, leading to any form of alienation of Crown 
land, were examined for compliance with statutes and 
departmental policy. These plans included individual sum- 
mer resort, commercial or industrial locations, water lots 
and Crown subdivisions. In addition, returns from surveys 
carried out under instructions, such as retracement, restora- 
tion and municipal surveys, which did not lead to aliena- 



tion, were examined for compliance with statutes and 
instructions. 

Field surveys for administrative purposes were carried 
out by staff surveyors with headquarters in Parry Sound and 
Tweed. These surveyors were engaged in determination of 
encroachment on Crown Land and extent of ambiguous 
Crown grants, retracement, inspection and park surveys, 
together with other miscellaneous surveys. 

As in the previous year, approximately 2,500 miles of 
forest access roads were maintained durmg the fiscal year. 

The criterion for eligibility for maintenance has not been 
broadened to include roads other than those used by the 
Department for pursuit of its programs, but the program 
has increased steadily, as the Department's capital road 
construction program has expanded, and reflects to a degree 
the new policy to maintain some abandoned logging roads 
where it is in the interest cf the Department to do so. 

DRAFTING SERVICES 

Drafting of legal survey plans resulting from Departmental 
field survey activities, and the preparation of special maps, 
plans, charts and graphic illustrations required by the 
operations of the Department, was continued by the Draft- 
ing Subsection. In addition, due to the steady demand by 
Departmental field offices, land planners and the public 
generally for area plans and for township plans to a scale 
of four inches to the mile, a pilot project for the production 
of township plans by private drafting contractors was tried 
during the past year to supplement continuing Depart- 
mental production. The results obtained indicate that similar 
production will continue in the future. 

The location and extent of all new dispositions of Crown 
land continue to be plotted and designated on office plans 
to maintain an up-to-date graphic inventory of land status 
throughout the Province. 

ENGINEERING SECTION 

The Section continues to provide management of water 
resources through approval of dams under The Lakes and 
River Improvement Act; determination of the terms and 
conditions, and preparation of water power lease agree- 
ments under The Water Power Regulation Act; administra- 
tion of licences of occupation for dams constructed princi- 
pally for log driving purposes; and administration of the 
reconstruction of old dams. In addition, special engineering 
consultation services are provided in hatchery design and 
construction, and in fisheries and waterfowl management 
projects. 



62 



o • o o o 



t 







i 




. «*;^ -^ 



'ffii4iLll 



Personnel Branch is divided into five sections with duties 
and responsibilities as follows. 

• Employment: Recruitment of staff, including )unior Forest 
Rangers; recruiting activities at universities and technical 
schools; job advertising; transfers and promotions; estab- 
lishment and complement control; and assignment of quali- 
fied employees to positions. 

• Classification and lob Evaluation: Ensuring that positions 
are properly classified and recommending the classification 
of positions; identifying and recording of organization and 
positions; ensuring that position specifications are pro- 
duced; classifying positions under the Delegated Authority; 
and developing class series. 

• Training and Special Assignments: Co-ordinating and 
organizing Department training courses; arranging for em- 
ployees to attend courses given by outside agencies; liaison 
with Ontario Forest Technical School and Educational Leave 
Committee; analyzing Department training needs; evaluat- 
ing courses; and special assignments. 

• Employee Relations: Counselling of employees; improve- 
ment of communications between field and head office 
staffs; investigations of problems relating to personnel; 
liaison with Staff Relations Branch, Treasury Board and Civil 
Service Association of Ontario; and maintaining Depart- 
ment program on alcoholism. 

• Office Management: Documentation of personnel rec- 
ords; attendance reports and leaves of absence recom- 
mendations; processing nominations to staff; transfers; 
separations; group insurance applications and changes; 
merit increases; accelerated increases; salary revisions; 
maintaining personnel files for all Regular and Probationary 
staff and Group 3 Unclassified; and providing statistical 
information at the request of other Branches of the Depart- 
ment. 



L - 




PERSONNEL 
BRANCH 



63 



TRAINING 

The 1968-9 fiscal year was a year of change. The Forestry 
Technician Course, started in 1943 by the Department, was 
phased out with the community colleges taking this course 
into their curriculum. This permitted the Ontario Forest 
Technical School to shift its emphasis to in-service training 
which led to a critical look at all of the Department's train- 
ing activities; as a result, greater centralization of the 
Department's training within the Branch has occurred. 

Some consultative work with other Branches, in terms of 
course development, was initiated and will continue as 
organizational needs dictate. As usual, the five certificate 
courses in Timber, Fish and Wildlife, Fire Suppression, Lands 
and Scaling were given, and a new four-week certificate 
course on Park work was initiated. 

Added to this was the development of a new Instructor 
Training Course incorporating the use of closed-circuit 
television, or video-tape recording equipment. The course 
was designed in such a way that formal lectures were almost 
completely eliminated. The onus was put on the students; 
they presented practice lessons, criticized the lessons as a 
group, and then reviewed the whole presentation on the 
television monitor. Their reviews reinforced the concepts 
expressed in the preceding discussions. 

RECRUITMENT 

To provide the Field and Head Office organizations with 
qualified professional and technical staff, eighteen Univer- 
sities and eight Forestry Technician Schools were visited in 
Canada and northern United States. 

To streamline the system of handling applications for 
permanent and summer employment, new forms were 
developed in collaboration with Systems and Procedures 
Section to cover interview reports, special applications, staff 
requisitions, card indexing and performance records. 

Newspaper advertising was used to cover specialized 
positions not normally handled by the campus program. 

The Junior Forest Ranger program continued to be attrac- 
tive to 17-year-olds. A total of 1,706 boys were placed in 75 
camps in the northern part of the Province. 

CLASSIFICATION 

Some 420 class specifications are used in the classification 
of positions in the Department. The program of reviewing 
all positions on a three-year rotation continued on schedule. 
Organization charts and position specifications have been 
made available to all supervisors of organizational units. A 



continuous audit function is carried out to assure equal 
treatment. 

Six classification grievances were dealt with; four were 
resolved by the Department; and two were heard by the 
Classification Rating Committee and failed. One dismissal 
grievance was dealt with and heard before the Grievance 
Board and failed. 

EMPLOYEE RELATIONS 

Agreements were reached on hours of work for pilots and 
air engineers during the operating season and for excess 
time on forest fires. Exclusions from the bargaining unit were 
finalized. Effective communication was maintained with the 
Staff Relations Branch, Treasury Board and the Civil Service 
Association of Ontario. 

A revised indexing system for personnel circulars was 
established. The objective of clear dialogue between the 
field and head office was pursued, and conditions were 
improved. 

The program of assisting the problem employee was 
maintained and included such items as financial and emo- 
tional as well as alcoholic; at meetings, emphasis has been 
placed upon the role of supervisor. The results of this pro- 
gram cannot be assessed on a short-term basis, but there 
are indications which support the continuation of such an 
endeavour. 

DISPOSITION OF PERSONNEL 

J. W. Giles (Supervisor, Timber Section) was appointed to 
Regional Director, Southern Region, on January 1, 1969, 
and Dr. W. R. Henson (Professor of Forest Entomology, 
Director of Graduate Studies in Forestry, Lecturer in Bio- 
logy, Fellow in Trumbull College at Yale University) was 
appointed Chief, Research Branch, on September 3, 1968, 
replacing D. R. Wilson who had held both positions since 
January 17, 1968. Mr. Wilson joined the Niagara Parks Com- 
mission as General Manager. 

A. J. Herridge (Regional Director, North-Eastern Region) 
was appointed Chief of Timber Branch on July 1, 1968, upon 
the superannuation of M. B. Morison who had held that 
position since September 1, 1964. J. W. Lockwood (Land 
Planning Analyst, Land Acquisition and Planning Section) 
filled the position left vacant by Mr. Herridge's transfer on 
July 1,1968. 

G. A. Hamilton (District Forester, Port Arthur) was ap- 
pointed Chief, Operations Branch, on February 1, 1969; the 
former Chief, P. O. Rhynas, was appointed Special Assistant 
to the Deputy Minister on February 11, 1969. 



64 



The disposition of senior administrative staff as of March 
31, 1969, was as follows: 

Deputy Minister: C. H. U. Bayly. 

Assistant Deputy Minister: R. D. K. Acheson. 

Regional Directors: J. W. Lockwood (North-Eastern); L. 
Ringham (North-Western); J. W. Giles (Southern). 

Regional Forester: T. W. Hueston (South-Central). 

Branch Chiefs: R. R. MacBean (Accounts); Dr. C. H. D. 
Clarke (Fish and Wildlife); W. T. Foster (Forest Protection); 
R. G. Code (Lands and Surveys); G. H. Ferguson (Law); G. A. 
Hamilton (Operations); P. Addison (Parks); ). M. Taylor 
(Personnel); Dr. W. R. FHenson (Research); A. J. Herridge 
(Timber). 

District Foresters: G. P. Elliott (Chapleau); L. H. Eckel 
(Cochrane); R. A. Balkwill (Fort Frances); D. E. Gage (Gerald- 
ton); D. A. Fawcett (Kapuskasing); R. M. Christie (Kempt- 
ville); K. K. Irizawa (Kenora); W. B. M. Clarke (Lake Erie); 
F. L. Hall (Lake Huron); F. E. Sider (Lake Simcoe); A. E. 
Walroth (Lindsay); W. L. Sleeman (North Bay); M. A. Adam- 
son (Parry Sound); J. R. Oatway (Acting) (Pembroke); C. A. 
Hamilton (Acting) (Port Arthur); J. S. Ball (Sault Ste. Marie); 
R. A. Baxter (Sioux Lookout); G. A. McCormack (Sudbury); 
S. R. Hamilton (Swastika); A. H. Peacock (Tweed); W. D. 
TIeman (White River). 

Ontario Forest Technical School: R. W. Hummel (Director). 

NEW EMPLOYEES HIRED, 1968-69 

Male Female Total 



TOTAL STAFF, MARCH 31, 1969 



Head Office 


95 


72 
63 


167 


Field 


255 


318 


Total 


350 


135 


485 



Regular 



Proba- Unclassified 
tionary Staff 



Total complement of regular and probationary 
positions as at March 31, 1969 

Total regular and probationary staff as at March 
31,1969 

Total vacancies in complement as at March 31, 
1969 



PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES, 
MARCH 31, 1969 

Foresters 

Biologists 

Professional Engineers 

Miscellaneous 



Total 



Head Office 

Field 


628 
1,858 


163 
322 


62 
842 


853 
3,022 






Total 


2,486 


485 


904 


3,875 


Total, March 31, 1968 
Total, March 31, 1967 


2,304 
2,270 


490 
297 


966 
777 


3,760 
3,344 



3,150 

2,971 

179 



225 
83 
15 
52 



Total 


375 






Number of Ontario Forest Technical School 
Graduates on Staff 


1,088 


Number of Licensed Scalers on Staff 


942 



STAFF TURNOVER OF REGULAR AND PROBATIONARY EMPLOYEES, 1968-69 

Transfers 
Resigned Dismissed Retired Died uper- inter- Misc Total 

annuated r^ . , r 
Departmental 



Head Office 49 




7 




6 - 


4 




10 


5 


8 89 


Field 83 




14 




9 


16 




27 


7 


10 166 


Total 132 




21 




15 


20 




37 


12 


18 255 


Note: The staff turnover for the fisca 


yea 


• was 


7.58% 


This is the 


ratio of 


sepa 


rations to total 


regular and probationary staff. 



65 





y 



r 



J 



y 




y 



/ 





ACCOUNTS 
BRANCH 



Accounts Branch is divided into units with duties and 
responsibilities as follows. 

• Accounting: Supervision of accounting for entire Depart- 
ment; preparation of claims under Federal-Provincial agree- 
ments; compilation of costing reports; procedural control 
and safe keeping of assets; and financial liaison with Treasury 
Board, Provincial Auditor, and other Government Depart- 
ments and agencies. 

• Revenue: Collection of revenue; maintenance of accounts 
receivable; supervision of accountable warrant funds; con- 
trol of collateral securities; and issue of angling and hunting 
licences and park permits. 

• Expenditure: Preparation of payrolls; internal check and 
payment of accounts payable; processing of refunds; and 
preparation of data for Public Accounts. 

• Budget Preparation and Control: Compilation of estimates 
and forecasts; and expenditure reporting and control. 

• Finance and Cost Analyses: Financial evaluation of plans; 
and preparation of statistical and financial reports. 

• Accounting Systems and Procedures: Development of 
accounting systems; preparation of accounting procedural 
manuals; and development of costing systems. 

• Land Tax Administration: Administration of Provincial 
Land Tax Act; and assessments and appeals. 

• Internal Audit: Review and appraisal of accounting, finan- 
cial and operational controls. 

• Systems and Procedures: Provision of systems improve- 
ment program for entire Department. 

• General: Data processing; and addressograph and mail 
services. 



FINANCIAL REPORT 



For Year Ended March 31st, 7969 



COMPARISON OF RECEIPTS AND 
DISBURSEMENTS WITH THOSE OF THE 
PREVIOUS TWO YEARS 



(a) RECEIPTS (Branch) 

1967 1968 1969 

$ $ $ 

Provincial Land Tax. 1,772,838 1,761,796 1,754,617 

Fish and Wildlife . . 6,741,700 6,891,016 8,691,389 

Forest Protection .. 113,545 163,205 128,821 

Lands and Surveys . 1,470,184 1,519,099 1,952,266 

Parks 2,103,496 2,432,009 2,413,613 

Timber 14,980,397 17,057,603 18,657,238 

Other 235,634 155,616 181,460 

Total Receipts . 27,417,794 29,980,344 33,779,404 



(b) DISBURSEMENTS 



$ 



Chargeable to 

Ordinary Account 36,307,310 42,807,111 48,375,964 



Chargeableto 
Capital Disburse- 
ments 



5,905,588 8,006,755 10,343,575 



Total Disburse- 
ments 42,212,898 50,813,866 58,719,539 



67 



RECEIPTS 



MAIN OFFICE 

Provincial Land Tax 

Sale of Maps, Publications, Etc. 



FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 
Licenses, Royalties and Sundry 



FOREST PROTECTION BRANCH 
Forest Protection Section 

Recovery of Fire Fighting Costs and Miscellaneous 
Air Service Section — Flying Fees 



LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCH 
Lands Section 

Land Sales (Capital) 

Summer Resort Roads— Recovery of Construction Costs (Capital 

Land Rentals, Leases and Licenses of Occupation 

Perquisites — Rentals 

Miscellaneous 



Park Rentals, Leases and Licenses of Occupation 

Algonquin 

Rondeau 

Presqu'ile 

Long Point 

Sundry Parks 

Surveys Section, Recovery of Survey Fees 



13,543.95 
13,117.77 

2,025.00 
703.00 

1,391.75 



PARKS BRANCH 
Park Concessions - 
Permits (All Parks) 

Vehicle 

Campsite 

Licenses — Guide 

Ski-Tow Fees 

Miscellaneous . . . . 



Rentals 



553,131.00 
1,648,213.00 



TIMBER BRANCH 
Timber Section 

Stumpage Charges 

Management and Fire Protection Charges 

Agreement Forests 

Miscellaneous 

Logging Roads — Recovery Construction Costs (Capital) 
Reforestation Section 
Sale of Nursery Stock 



$14,704,603.36 

3,364,472.68 

75,059.60 

45,651.12 



STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS 

For Year Ended 



1,754,617.34 
169,603.36 



84,249.46 
44,571.91 



1,113,794.49 

66,423.64 

384,822.13 

176,849.27 

14,145.16 



30,781.47 
165,450.00 

$ 116,282.82 



2,201,344.00 

5,500.00 

1,552.00 

88,933.84 



$18,189,786.76 
308,098.03 

159,353.62 



$ 1,924,220.70 
8,691,388.62 

128,821.37 



1,952,266.16 



2,413,612.66 



Carried Forward 



18.657,238.41 
$33,767,547.92 



68 



AND DISBURSEMENTS 

March 31 St, 1969 

DISBURSEMENTS 

MAIN OFFICE 

Minister's Salary — Statutory 

Salaries $ 2,023,208.70 

Travelling Expenses 58,638.87 

Maintenance and Operating 184,922.27 

Public Information and Education 

Damages, other Claims, etc 

Workmen's Compensation Board 

Annuities and Bonuses to Indians 

Unemployment Insurance '. 

Advison,' Committee to Minister 

Grant to Ontario Forestry Association 

Grant to Canadian Council of Resources Ministers 

Data Processing Services 

FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 

Salaries $ 566,217.66 

Travelling Expenses 42,749.87 

Maintenance and Operating 323,895.80 

Grants 

Jack Miner Migratory Bird Foundation $ 3,000.00 

Ontario Waterfowl Research Foundation 5,000.00 

Ontario Fur Breeder's Association Inc 5,000.00 

Ontario Council of Commercial Fisheries 5,000.00 

Ontario Trappers' Association 5,000.00 

Wolf Bounty 

FOREST PROTECTION BRANCH 

Salaries 

Travelling Expenses 

Maintenance and Operating 

LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCH 

Salaries $ 806,584.47 

Travelling Expenses 25,991.75 

Maintenance and Operating 56,097.24 

Land Surveys 

Storage Dams — Control and Maintenance 

Grant — Association of Ontario Land Surveyors 

PARKS BRANCH 

Salaries 

Travelling Expenses 

Maintenance and Operating 

Carried Forward 



Statement No. 7 



$ 12,000.00 



2,266,769.84 

279,520.51 

759.33 

232,760.92 

39,224.00 

108,626.23 

3,974.31 

12,500.00 

34,776.00 

128,466.58 



$ 932,863.33 



23,000.00 
62,000.00 



263,655.70 
14,324.36 
17,494.45 



888,673.46 

829,989.69 

2,001.23 

200.00 



283,238.99 

22,522.54 
17,072.17 



$ 3,119,377.72 



1,017,863.33 



295,474.51 



1,720,864.38 



322.833.70 
$ 6,476,413.64 



69 



RECEIPTS (Continued) 

Brought Forward $33,767,547.92 

FOREST TECHNICAL SCHOOL 
Tuition Fees 11,857.00 

REIMBURSEMENTS OF DISBURSEMENTS 
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA 
Ordinary 

Federal-Provincial Resources Development Agreement (See Contra) $ 99,993.62 

Federal-Provincial Rural Development Agreement (See Contra) 665,248.57 

Federal-Provincial Fisheries Industrial Development Agreement (See Contra) . . . 30,411.34 

Capital 

Federal-Provincial Rural Development Agreement (See Contra) 324.868.96 1,120,522.49 

GROSS RECEIPTS $34,899,927.41 

Deduct — Reimbursements of Disbursements 1,120,522.49 

NET RECEIPTS $33,779,404.92 

Excess of Disbursements over Receipts 24,940,134.70 



$58,719,539.62 



70 



DISBURSEMENTS (Contmued) 



Brought Forward $6,476,413.64 



RESEARCH BRANCH 

Salaries $ 905,495.05 

Travelling Expenses 37,952.26 

Maintenance and Operating 199,813.91 1,143,261.22 

Salaries $ 1,019,891.85 

Travelling Expenses 62,562.92 

Maintenance and Operating 257,764.32 $ 1,340,219.09 

Grants — Municipalities and Conservation Authorities 136,068.92 

Less Federal Contribution 18,381.62 117,687.30 1,457,906.39 

BASIC ORGANIZATION— FIELD SERVICES 

Salaries $25,050,863.01 

Travelling Expenses 937,193.41 

Maintenance and Operating 8,601,816.07 

Equipment — Other than Forest Fire Suppression 2,655,199.00 

Maintenance of Forest Access Roads 965,501.90 

Less Reimbursements of Disbursements — Government of Canada $38,210,573.39 

Federal-Provincial Resources Development Agreement . . $ 99,993.62 

Federal Provincial Rural Development Agreement 665,248.57 

Federal-Provincial Fisheries Industrial Development 
Agreement 30,411.34 795,653.53 37,414,919.86 

EXTRA FIRE FIGHTING 

Wages, etc.. Maintenance and Operating $ 316,887.40 

Forest Fire Suppression Equipment 174,144.86 491,032.26 

FOREST TECHNICAL SCHOOL 

Salaries $ 279,639.54 

Travelling Expenses, Maintenance and Operating 13,940.00 293,579.54 

JUNIOR RANGER PROGRAM 

Wages, Travelling Expenses, Maintenance and Operating 1,098,851.60 

SUMMER RESORT ACCESS ROADS (CAPITAL) 

Construction Costs (See Receipts) 190,974.27 

LOGGING ROADS (CAPITAL) 

Construction Costs (See Receipts) 308,098.03 

FOREST ACCESS ROADS (CAPITAL) 
Construction Costs 1,273,978.04 

LAND ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT (CAPITAL) 

Parks, Recreation Areas, Public Hunting and Fishing Areas, Construction of Buildings 

and other improvements $ 8,895,393.73 

Less — Reimbursements of Disbursements — Government of Canada — Federal-Pro- 
vincial Rural Development Agreement 324,868.96 8,570,524.77 

$58,719,539.62 



71 



TOTAL EXPENDITURE ALLOCATED 



For the Year Ended 



Fish and Forest 

Wildlife Protection Lands Parks 

As per Vote $ $ $ $ 

ORDINARY EXPENDITURE 

Main Office 516,951.24 559,021.46 212,454.15 

Fish & Wildlife Branch 1,017,863.33 

Forest Protection Branch 295,474.51 

Lands & Surveys Branch 356,358.06 

Parks Branch 

Timber Branch 

Research Branch 

Forest Technical School 78,092.16 23,457.00 

Junior Ranger Program 19,191.97 180,074.13 34,499.27 

Basic Organization 5,653,823.34 9,519,699.48 1,732,458.95 

Extra Fire Fighting (Wages and Equipment) 491,032.26 

7,285,922.04 11,068,758.84 2,335,770.43 

DISTRIBUTION OF GENERAL EXPENDITURE AND ADMINISTRATION COSTS OVER MAIN SERVICES 

Field Administration 

(Pro-Rated) 512,544.72 754,548.01 226,402.45 

Percentage 13.47% 19.837o 5.95% 

Research (As per Analysis) 1,181,506.43 106,010.39 12,573.83 

Surveys (Pro-Rated) 16,032.07 1,571,142.65 

Percentage 1% 98% 

TOTAL ORDINARY EXPENDITURE 8,996,005.26 11,929,317.24 4,145,889.36 6,575,057.44 

CAPITAL DISBURSEMENTS 

Construction of Access Roads — Summer Resort 

(see receipts) 190,974.27 

Construction of Logging Roads (see receipts) 

Construction of Forest Access Roads 48,283.77 307,283.50 224,729.73 34,015.21 

Land Acquisition and Development 270,368.00 100,750.00 731,159.53 5,627,981.20 

TOTAL CAPITAL DISBURSEMENTS 318,651.77 408,033.50 1,146,863.53 5,661,996.41 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE 9,314,657.03 12,337,350.74 5,292,752.89 12,237,053.85 

Less— Federal Contributions 289,026.79 403,081.36 161,778.70 

TOTAL NET EXPENDITURE 9,025,630.24 12,337,350.74 4,889,671.53 12,075,275.15 

Percentage of Total 15.37% 21.01% 8.33% 20.56% 

*Deductions 



600,288.52 



322,833.70 



492,525.93 
4,370,615.53 



5,786,263.68 



788,793.76 
20.73% 



72 



TO MAIN SERVICES RENDERED 

March 31 St, 1969 



Statement No. 2 









Field 




Less 










Adminis- 


Cross 


Federal 


Net 


Timber 


Research 


Surveys 


tration 


Total 


Contributions 


Total 


$ 


$ 


$ 


S 


$ 


$ 


$ 


950,856.69 


108,348.61 


79,659.90 


91,797.15 


3,119,377.72 

1,017,863.33 

295,474.51 


— 


3,119,377.72 

1,017,863.33 

295,474.51 






1,364,506.32 




1,720,864.38 
322,833.70 


— 


1,720,864.38 
322,833.70 


1,476,288.01 








1,476,288.01 


18,381.62 


1,457,906.39 




1,143,261.22 






1,143,261.22 


— 


1,143,261.22 


155,714.59 




36,315.79 




293,579.54 


— 


293,579.54 


368,462.61 


1,398.42 




2,699.27 


1,098,851.60 


— 


1,098,851.60 


12,520,093.83 


766,875.71 


13,899.40 


3,710,586.85 


38,288,053.09 
491,032.26 


873,133.23 


37,414,919.86 
491,032.26 



15,471,415.73 



2,019,883.96 



1,494,381.41 



3,805,083.27 



49,267,479.36 



891,514.85 



48,375,964.51 



1,265,951.21 

33.27% 

867,811.05 

16,032.07 

1% 



148,017.74 

3.897o 

*2,167,901.70 



108,825.38 *3,805,083.27 
2.86% 



♦1,603,206.79 



17,621,210.06 



49,267,479.36 



891,514.85 48,375,964.51 



308,098.03 

659,665.83 

2,165,135.00 



34.73% 



190,974.27 

308,098.03 

1,273,978.04 

8,895,393.73 



324,868.96 



190,974.27 

308,098.03 

1,273,978.04 

8,570,524.77 



3,132,898.86 


10,668,444.07 


324,868.96 


10,343,575.11 


20,754,108.92 
362,496.96 


59,935,923.43 


1,216,383.81 




20,391,611.96 






58,719,539.62 



73 




The duties and responsibilities of Law Branch may be sum- 
marized as follows. 

• Policy: Establishing and reviewing Department policy with 
respect to legislation, regulations or administration; and 
integrating Department policies into those of the Govern- 
ment. 

• Interpretation of statutes and regulations. 

• Advice to branches and field offices on the legal position 
of the Department in all matters affecting it. 

• Preparation and Processing of agreements; briefs, opinions 
and memoranda on special subjects; leases; legislation; 
licences; office consolidations of statutes and regulations; 
pleadings; recommendations to Council; and regulations 
under the various statutes administered by the Department. 

• Services (miscellaneous): Collection of bad accounts; con- 
ducting litigation; conveyancing; representing the Depart- 
ment as Counsel in Provincial Land Tax Appeals and other 
hearings; settlements of claims and disputes; and title 
searching. 

• Liaison with federal officials on matters concerning 
fisheries; federal canal systems, harbours and lands; and 
Indian reserves and rights of Indians, particularly regarding 
hunting and fishing. 

• Patents Office: Maintenance of records of Crown land and 
transactions respecting, and legal dispositions of Crown 
lands; advising the public on records; compilation of statis- 
tics; and preparation and engrossing of documents dispos- 
ing of Crown land including leases, letters patent and 
licences of occupation. 



LAW 
BRANCH 



LEGISLATION 



At the part of the 1968-9 Session of the Legislature that 
convened on the 19th day of November, 1968, and ad- 
journed on the 27th day of June, 1969, one statute adminis- 
tered by the Department was re-enacted, one statute to be 
administered by the Department was enacted, and amend- 
ments were made to one statute administered by the Depart- 
ment. 

THE FISH INSPECTION 
AMENDMENT ACT, 1968-69 

Three amendments were made to The Fish Inspection Act 
and came into force on May 13, 1969. 

Clause d of subsection 1 of the Act was re-enacted to 
define an inspector as a person appointed by the Minister 
as an inspector under the Act or a person declared to be an 
inspector, ex officio, under the Act. 

New section la was added to the Act authorizing the 
Minister to appoint inspectors and the Lieutenant Governor 
in Council to declare that inspectors appointed under the 
Fish Inspection Act (Canada) are ex officio inspectors. 

Clause ca was added to subsection 1 of section 13 per- 
mitting the making of regulations prescribing the duties of 
inspectors. 

THE FRESHWATER FISH 
MARKETING ACT, 1968-69 

This new Act provides for the marketing of freshwater fish 
in a designated part of Ontario and the participation of the 
fishermen in the designated part in a plan of fish marketing 
being established under federal legislation, i.e., the Fresh- 
water Fish Marketing Act (Canada), controlling fish market- 
ing in the Prairie Provinces, the territories and the desig- 
nated area of Ontario. 

Section 1 is the definition section. 

Section 2 authorizes the Lieutenant Governor in Council 
to make regulations designating the corporation established 
under the federal Act, i.e., the Freshwater Fish Marketing 
Corporation, as the body to control the selling and buying 
of fish in the part of Ontario designated in the regulations. 
Where this is done, the Lieutenant Governor in Council may 
recommend the appointment of a director of the corpora- 
tion. 



LJnder section 3, where a regulation has been made under 
section 2, all fish of the species listed in the federal Act law- 
fully fished by a fisherman and offered by him for sale to 
the corporation for disposal in intra-provincial trade shall 
be bought by the corporation. 

Section 4 authorizes the appointment of inspectors by 
the Minister and the declaration by the Lieutenant Governor 
in Council that federal officers under the Fish Inspection 
Act (Canada) and the Freshwater Fish Marketing Act 
(Canada) are ex officio inspectors. 

Section 5 sets out the powers of inspectors such as the 
power to inspect commercial premises and vehicles, open 
containers and take samples and require production of 
documents. Persons in charge of premises are required to 
provide all reasonable assistance and information to inspec- 
tors. 

Section 6 permits an officer who believes on reasonable 
grounds that a provision of the Act has been contravened 
to seize and obtain fish which may not be detained for more 
than 90 days unless proceedings have been instituted in 
respect of the contravention. Upon conviction, the fish are 
forfeited to Her Majesty upon the order of the court. 

Section 7 makes it an offence to obstruct an officer or give 
an officer false or misleading statements. 

Section 8 provides that except under a licence or as per- 
mitted by the regulations no person other than the cor- 
poration or its agent may buy or sell fish listed in the sched- 
ule to the federal Act and taken in the designated part of 
Ontario. 

Section 9 authorizes the Minister with the approval of the 
Lieutenant Governor in Council to enter into agreements 
with the government of Canada for the sharing of the initial 
operating and establishment expenses of the corporation 
and the guarantee of losses of the corporation, the perform- 
ance of the corporation on behalf of Ontario of functions 
relating to intra-provincial trade in fish, the undertaking by 
Ontario of arrangements for the payment for plant and 
equipment that becomes redundant by reason of the opera- 
tions of the corporation and such other matters as may be 
agreed upon. 

A penalty of not more than $5,000.00 is provided by sec- 
tion 10 for contravention of the Act or the regulations. 

Section 11 provides that in the prosecution of an offence 
it is sufficient proof of the offence to establish that it was 
committed by an employee or agent of the accused, whether 
or not the employee or agent is identified or has been 
prosecuted, unless the accused establishes that the offence 
was committed without his knowledge or consent and that 
he exercised all due diligence to prevent its commission. 



75 



Section 12 provides that summary conviction proceedings 
shall be instituted within one year. 

Section 13 provides tor the making of regulations requir- 
ing licences to transport fish, governing the issue, form and 
terms and conditions of licences, exempting species of fish, 
areas, transactions and persons from the Act, respecting the 
detention of seized fish and respecting the disposition of 
forfeited fish. 

Section 14 of the Act provides that it comes into force on 
proclamation and by a proclamation appearing in the 
Ontario Gazette of August 23, 1969, and issued pursuant to 
Order in Council Number 2870,''69 dated the 24th day of 
July, 1969, the Act was declared to come into force on 
August 1,1969. 

THE SURVEYORS ACT, 1968-69 

The Surveyors Act, which was last revised in 1931, was re- 
vised and up-dated and, with minor exceptions, the recom- 
mendations of the Report of the Royal Commission Inquiry 
into Civil Rights affecting self-governing professions were 
incorporated into the Act which takes effect on January 1, 
1970. The new Act continues the Association of Ontario 
Land Surveyors, which was established in 1892, its council 
of management and the board of examiners. The Act sets 
out the objects of the Association, establishes the site of its 
head office, and provides for appointment of officers and 
other staff of the Association. 

New principles, in addition to those recommended by the 
report, include: 

(a) provision of secret votes for officers of the Association 
and approval of regulations and by-laws; 

(b) appointment rather than election of administrative 
officers; 

(c) reduction from six years to six months of the period of 
default for non-payment of dues permitting suspension 
of membership; and 

(d) the permission of the practice of surveying by partner- 
ships, associations of persons and corporations subject 
to controls designed to protect the public by ensuring 
that a qualified surveyor is responsible for survey work 
performed. 

Among the new principles of the Act arising from the 
recommendations of the Report of the Royal Commission 
on Civil Rights are: 

(a) appointment of lay persons to the council of manage- 
ment including a lawyer of ten years' standing; 



(b) the distinction between regulations and by-laws, the 
former dealing with matters of general public interest 
such as discipline, admission, examinations, professional 
misconduct, form of summons, practice and procedure 
for hearings, bonding and designation of head office 
and requiring the approval of the Lieutenant Governor 
in Council and the latter dealing with internal matters 
and not requiring such approval; 

(c) a right of a hearing before and a right of appeal from 
refusal of admission to membership in the Association; 

(d) a broadening of the right of surveyors from other juris- 
dictions to admission to membership in the Association; 

(e) the establishment of full range of sanctions from repri- 
mand to suspension or cancellation of membership for 
professional misconduct or obtaining admission as a 
member through misrepresentations; 

(f) the removal of the authority of the Association to levy 
fines; 

(g) the payment of fines into the public revenues; 

(h) the awarding of costs to members in respect of un- 
warranted disciplinary action; 

(i) the right of a hearing prior to the council taking dis- 
ciplinary action; 

(j) the right of representation at a hearing; 

(k) the holding of hearings in private except on the request 
of the member involved and in the event of a request 
the council has a discretion of holding the hearing in 
public; 

(I) the rules of evidence in civil cases apply to hearings; 

(m) summonses may be issued to compel attendances at 
hearings; 

(n) contempt proceedings shall be administered by the 
courts rather than by the disciplinary body; 

(o) the person accused has the right to cross-examine wit- 
nesses and call evidence; 

(p) decisions are to be reduced to writing, supported by 
reasons and served on the person whose conduct is 
under investigation within 30 days; 

(q) the right to continue practice until the right of appeal 
has terminated or an appeal has been finalized, except 
where the charge was incompetence; and 

(s) a right of appeal to the Court of Appeal on disciplinary 
decisions. 



76 



REGULATIONS 



Forty-tour regulations made under the authority of Acts administered by the Department of Lands and Forests were 
made and filed during the fiscal year from April 1st, 1968, to March 31st, 1969. 

THE CROWN TIMBER ACT 

O. Reg. 77/69— Amends Reg. 69 of R.R.O. 1960 General 

THE FOREST FIRES PREVENTION ACT 

O. Reg. 318/68— Amends Reg. 184 of R.R.O. 1960 Fire Districts 

THE FORESTRY ACT 

O. Reg. 337/68— Amends O. Reg. 51/68 Nurseries 

THE GAME AND FISH ACT, 1961-62 

O. Reg. 113/68 — Amends O. Reg. 46/65 Fishing Licences 

O. Reg. 114/68 — Amends O. Reg. 229/63 Huntmg Licences — Issuance 

O. Reg. 232/68— Amends O. Reg. 184/64 Fire-Arms 

O. Reg. 241/68— Amends O. Reg. 294/67 Open Seasons— Rabbit and Squirrel 

O. Reg. 251/68 — Amends O. Reg. 229/63 Hunting Licences — Issuance 

O. Reg. 277/68— Revokes O. Regs.285/63, 286/63, 251/64, 

281/64, 335/66, 342/66, 273/67 and 274/67 . . . Hunting on Designated Crown Land and in Provincial Parks 
O. Reg. 278/68— Revokes O. Regs. 139/65, 180/65, 266/65, 

272/66 and 349/67 Open Seasons — Deer, Moose and Black Bear 

O. Reg. 279/68— Amends O. Reg. 272/67 Open Seasons— Came Birds 

O. Reg. 280/68— Revokes O. Reg. 325/67 Designation of Class of Licence 

O. Reg. 297/68 — Amends O. Reg. 295/67 Open Seasons — Fur-Bearing Animals 

O. Reg. 302/68 — Amends O. Reg. 229/63 Hunting Licences — Issuance 

O. Reg. 317/68— Amends O. Regs. 229/63, 328/64, 273/66, 

77/67, 314/67 and 251/68 Hunting Licences — Issuance 

O. Reg. 319/68— Amends O. Reg. 278/68 Open Seasons— Deer, Moose and Black Bear 

O. Reg. 338/68— Amends O. Reg. 277/68 Hunting on Designated Crown Land and in Provincial Parks 

O. Reg. 339/68— Revokes O. Reg. 211/65 Hunting Licences— Issuance 

O. Reg. 357/68— Amends O. Reg. 272/67 Open Seasons^Came Birds 

O. Reg. 363/68— Amends O. Reg. 278/68 Open Seasons— Deer, Moose and Black Bear 

O. Reg. 364/68— Amends O. Reg. 229/63 Hunting Licences— Issuance 

O. Reg. 384/68— Amends O. Reg. 184/64 Fire-Arms 

O. Reg. 390/68— Amends O. Reg. 278/68 Open Seasons— Deer, Moose and Black Bear 

O. Reg. 406/68 — Amends O. Reg. 46/65 Fishing Licences 

O. Reg. 427/68 — Amends O. Reg. 46/65 Fishing Licences 

O. Reg. 428/68— Amends O. Reg. 272/67 Open Seasons— Came Birds 

O. Reg. 25/69— Revokes O. Regs. 278/68, 319/68, 363/68 and 

390/68 Open Seasons — Deer, Moose and Black Bear 

O. Reg. 43/69— Amends O. Reg. 280/68 Designation of Class of Licence 

THE PROVINCIAL PARKS ACT 

O. Reg. 115/68— Amends Reg. 499 of R.R.O. 1960 General 

O. Reg. 202/68— Amends Reg. 499 of R.R.O. 1960 General 

O. Reg. 320/68— Amends Reg. 498 of R.R.O. 1960 Designation of Parks 

O. Reg. 362/68— Amends Reg. 498 of R.R.O. 1960 Designation of Parks 

O. Reg. 86/69— Amends Reg. 498 of R.R.O, 1960 Designation of Parks 



77 



THE PUBLIC LANDS ACT 

O. Reg. 125/68 — New Restricted Areas — District of Muskoka — Township of Baxter 

O. Reg. 164/68 — New Restricted Areas — Districts of Timiskaming and Nipissing 

O. Reg. 194/68 — Revokes O. Reg. 125/68 Restricted Areas — District of Muskoka — Township of Baxter 

O. Reg. 53/69 — New Restricted Areas — District of Sudbury — Townships of 

Cochrane, Chapleau, Gallagher, Panel, Tp. 28 and Tp. 29 
O. Reg. 87/69— Amends Reg. 524 of R.R.O. 1960 Sale of Public Lands 

THE RAILWAY FIRE CHARGE ACT 

O. Reg. 411/68— Amends Reg. 532 of R.R.O. 1960 Charges for Fire Protection 

THE SURVEYS ACT 

O. Reg. 42/69— Amends O. Reg. 266/61 Monuments 

THE WILDERNESS AREAS ACT 

O. Reg. 361/68— Amends Reg. 567 of R.R.O. 1960 Wilderness Areas 

THE WOLF AND BEAR BOUNTY ACT 

O. Reg. 250/68— Amends Reg. 569 of R.R.O. 1960 Bounties 

THE WOODLANDS IMPROVEMENT ACT, 1966 

O. Reg. 383/68— Amends O. Reg. 244/66 General 

O. Reg. 44/69— Amends O. Reg. 244/66 General 

Ciant Canada geese in flight. 




78 



ORDERS-IN-COUNCIL 

Recommended bv the Minister of Lands and Forests in the 
Year 1968-9 



THE INTERPRETATION ACT 



THE CROWN TIMBER ACT 






1413/68 


2754/68 


4057/68 


5/69 


298/69 


1430/68 


2798/68 


4058/68 


6/69 


299/69 


1601/68 


2843/68 


4090/68 


7/69 


309/69 


1763/68 


2909/68 


4123/68 


15/69 


310/69 


1815/68 


2943/68 


4193/68 


16/69 


402/69 


1831/68 


2951/68 


4346/68 


22/69 


414/69 


1845/68 


2964/68 


4347 '68 


23/69 


417/69 


1872/68 


2981/68 


4369/68 


74;'69 


529/69 


1930/68 


3190/68 


4420/68 


75/69 


532/69 


2147/68 


3192/68 


4469/68 


91/69 


613/69 


2167/68 


3240/68 


4470/68 


95/69 


692/69 


2284/68 


3319/68 


4475/68 


96/69 


722/69 


2555/68 


3359/68 


4511/68 


110/69 


795/69 


2556/68 


3412/68 


4561/68 


111/69 


805/69 


2557/68 


3442/68 


4822/68 


112/69 


806/69 


2559/68 


3644/68 


4828/68 


119/69 


810/69 


2561/68 


3645/68 


4850/68 


167/69 


826/69 


2562/68 


3646/68 


4872/68 


171/69 


827/69 


2723/68 


3655/68 


4934/68 


172/69 


912/69 


2724/68 


3656/68 


4976/68 


175/69 


913/69 


2726/68 


3680/68 


5005/68 


176/69 


914/69 


2733/68 


3699/68 


5046/68 


182/69 


916/69 


2734/68 


3843/68 


5047/68 


192/69 


1097/69 


2735/68 


3896/68 


5048/68 


193/69 


1128/69 


2740/68 


3897/68 


5050/68 


197/69 


1207/69 


2741/68 


3928/68 


5051/68 


198/69 




2753/68 


3932/68 


5116/68 


199/69 





THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL ACT 

4421/68 691/69 

THE FOREST FIRES PREVENTION ACT 

3540/68 1237/69 



THE FOREST TREE PEST CONTROL ACT 



THE FORESTRY ACT 



THE GAME AND FISH ACT, 1961-62 



633/69 



3891/68 



2727/68 


3193/68 


3892/68 


4229/68 


5045/68 


2878/68 


3453/68 


3893/68 


4373/68 


5052/68 


3115/68 


3539/68 


4196/68 


4420/68 


399/69 


3187/68 


3568/68 


4197/68 


4514/68 


556/69 


3189/68 











3458/68 
3490/68 
4191/68 



MISCELLANEOUS 



1803/68 3765/68 5136/68 
2076/68 4066/68 5142/68 



THE MUNICIPAL ACT 

2345/68 2710/68 3777/68 
2581/68 3460/68 1091/69 

THE ONTARIO GEOGRAPHIC NAMES 
BOARD ACT 608/69 



THE PROVINCIAL PARKS ACT 

2428/68 3625/68 



THE RAILWAY FIRE CHARGE ACT 

THE SURVEYS ACT 

THE WILDERNESS AREAS ACT 

THE WOLF AND BEAR BOUNTY ACT 



4195/68 



THE PUBLIC LANDS ACT 






1479/68 


2375/68 


3254/68 


3957/68 


4958/68 


1481/68 


2434/68 


3313/68 


3959 68 


5016/68 


1482/68 


2437/68 


3366/68 


3998/68 


5134/68 


1483/68 


2450/68 


3371/68 


4067/68 


5176/68 


1490/68 


2473/68 


3372/68 


4068/68 


93/69 


1572/68 


2502/68 


3542/68 


4073/68 


94/69 


1573/68 


2554/68 


3549/68 


4091/68 


113/69 


1643/68 


2578/68 


3715/68 


4093/68 


191/69 


1651/68 


2736/68 


3745/68 


4235/68 


204/69 


1725/68 


2777/68 


3766/68 


4330/68 


566/69 


1813/68 


2992/68 


3895/68 


4336/68 


604/69 


1857/68 


2998/68 


3903/68 


4455/68 


700/69 


1936/68 


3029/68 


3911/68 


4559/68 


770/69 


2041/68 


3030/68 


3912/68 


4814/68 


813/69 


2075/68 


3186/68 


3955/68 


4837/68 


828/69 


2343/68 


3191/68 


3956/68 


4955/68 


968/69 
1206/69 



4610/68 

517/69 

4194/68 

2826/68 



THE WOODLANDS IMPROVEMENT ACT 

4328/68 
564/69 



79 




Trapper with catch of wolves, Lindsay Forest District. 

FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL 

CO-OPERATIVE 

AGREEMENTS 

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF FIRES 
ON INDIAN RESERVES 

By an agreement dated the 24th day of June, 1968 between 
the Government of the Province of Ontario as represented 
by the Honourable Rene Brunelle, Minister of Lands and 
Forests, and the Government of Canada as represented by 
the Honourable Arthur Laing, Minister of Indian Affairs and 
Northern Development, the agreement respecting fire pro- 
tection on Indian Reserves dated the 31st day of |uly, 1961, 
was remade. Under the new agreement, Ontario will con- 
tinue to provide the same prevention and detection services 
to Indian reserves as are provided to adjacent public lands 
and Canada shall pay to Ontario on or before May 1st in 
each year 4t for each protected acre. This agreement is 
subject to review at five-year intervals. 

RECONSTRUCTION OF CRAB LAKE DAM 
By an agreement dated the 15th day of October, 1968, 
between Her Majesty the Queen In right of Canada repre- 
sented by the Minister of Transport and acting under the 



authority of Order in Council PC 1969-138, and Her Majesty 
the Queen in right of Ontario represented bv the Minister 
of Lands and Forests acting under the authoritv of Order in 
Council OC 4421/68, Canada was given the right to recon- 
struct or rebuild the dam on Crab Lake, sometimes known 
as Nunikani Lake, in Sherborne Township in the Provisional 
County of Haliburton. The agreement provides for an in- 
crease in the elevation of the control level from nine feet, 
six inches, to eleven feet, six inches, above the sill of the 
old dam, which level is equivalent to ten feet above the sill 
of the new dam. Canada retained the right to regulate the 
dam and Ontario agreed to indemnify Canada against any 
claims arising from the raising of the water level on Crab 
Lake to not more than ten feet above the top of the sill of 
the new dam. 

The dam on Crab Lake was one of the dams turned over 
to Canada by the Order in Council of )uly 22, 1905. for the 
purpose of establishing reservoirs for the Trent Canal System. 

STATEMENT OF PATENTS 

Statement of Patents, etc., Issued During the Year ending 
March 3T, 1969. 

PATENTS 

Agriculture 19 

City-Town 59 

Free Grant 2 

Miscellaneous 144 

Summer Resort 1,117 

Release of Pine 8 1,349 

LEASES 

Algonquin Park 27 

Crown 21 

Rondeau Park 29 

Water Lot 4 81 

LICENCES OF OCCUPATION 

61 61 

CANCELLATIONS 

LEASES 

Algonquin Park 28 

Crown 1 

Rondeau Park 44 

Water Lot 1 94 

LICENCES OF OCCUPATION 

62 62 



80 



^ 




Operations Branch is divided into six sections with duties 
and responsibilities as follows. 

• Office Management: Inventory of major equipment; 
licensing of boats; production of circulars and bulletins; 
Crown land records and microfilming; Branch budget esti- 
mates and allotments; staff records and processing; and 
uniform records and issues. 

• Purchasing: Purchasing of equipment, supplies and ser- 
vices; filling requisitions; leases and rentals; and arrange- 
ments for travel and conferences. 

• Central Supply Warehouse: Receipt, security and distri- 
bution of equipment, supplies, uniforms and printed ma- 
terial; and promotion of foreign state visits. 

• Conservation Information: Publications; weekly news- 
letter and press releases; material for outside agencies; dis- 
play and classified advertisements; photo, slide and cut 
services; reference library and clipping service; and supply 
of information to public. 

• Conservation Education: Display material for Depart- 
ment exhibits; production and purchase of motion films; 
film supply service; program material for radio and tele- 
vision; and lecture service. 

• Accident Control: Administration of The Loggers' Safety 
Act; Hunter Safety Program; safety program in Provincial 
Parks; staff safety and first aid programs; and Workmen's 
Compensation. 



OPERATIONS 
BRANCH 



81 



OFFICE MANAGEMENT 
SECTION 

During the fiscal year, the preparation, revision and allot- 
ment of operating funds were continued. The inventory of 
the Department's major equipment included trucks, cars, 
boats, canoes, power plants and shop machines. Staff rec- 
ords and recommendations were processed. 

Records were kept of the 1,380 on staff, including Parks 
seasonal staff, who wear the Department uniform. New 
requirements were included in the estimates for the next 
fiscal year. 

The Records Office houses records pertinent to all Crown 
lands of the Province. Here, duties included the assembly, 
indexing and classification of all incoming correspondence, 
and the compilation and distribution of new files. 

To license Department boats, communication was main- 
tained with the federal Department of Transport. Some 
marine units of the Department require only a licence num- 
ber, while others need a registration certificate. 

Various special assignments were carried out. 

PURCHASING SECTION 

Due to continued expansion and the resultant need of 
equipment, procurement in this fiscal period was active and 
widespread. Over 11,000 requisitions were received and 
these were the basis for the issuance of 7,864 direct pur- 
chase orders, 2,520 Queen's Printer stationery orders, 685 
printing orders and 261 Public Works requisitions. Back of 
this basic need and demand were the many-faceted details 
of investigation and procurement. 

Supervision of leases for office and other space require- 
ments, as well as telephone service oversight, was also 
maintained in conjunction with the Department of Public 
Works. 

CENTRAL SUPPLY 
WAREHOUSE SECTION 

During the fiscal year, the Section received a total of 368 
tons of supplies and equipment and shipped a total of 260 
tons. Shipments were made by express, freight, transport 
and mail, and by internal supply to Department offices. 



The Section participated actively on the committee re- 
sponsible for the reception of state visitors and government 
experts. 

Thirty types of licences were distributed to district offices 
and more than 3,000 licence issuers on 15,233 invoices. The 
2,100,000 licences included hunting, angling, bait fish, roll 
net, dip net, frog, guide, trapping, trap-line, and dog 
licences. 

The distribution of Provincial Park permits included 
175,700 annual vehicle permits, 378,000 daily permits and 
298,000 campsite permits. 295,500 fur seals were distributed. 

Department uniforms were stocked and delivered to per- 
sonnel on requisition. 

Campers are advised to feel the ashes with the bare hand 
to make sure their campfire is dead out before they leave it. 




82 



CONSERVATION 

INFORMATION 

SECTION 

The Section worked through many media during the past 
fiscal year to disseminate intormation on the protection and 
management ot the renewable, natural resources under the 
Department's administration. 

RELEASES 

A newsletter of several pages circulated Department news 
and regulations every week in a form easily adapted by out- 
side agencies. The mailing list of 4,042 included all news- 
papers, broadcasting stations and outdoor writers in 
Ontario, as well as magazines, trade papers, forest industries, 
conservation groups, recreational clubs, and a number of 
writers and commentators outside the province. 

The French translation of the newsletter had a weekly 
circulation of 185. 

News of more than normal urgency was supplied directly 
to important news outlets. 

Conservation Copy provided additional material for 
writers and publications in season, while Conservation Spots 
supplied public service announcements to broadcasters. 

Special appeals were prepared for news media to enlist 
public support of Department programs, principally in forest 
fire prevention and hunter safety. 

Other editorial services increased the concentration of 
conservation messages. Articles and background material 
were prepared for outside agencies on request. Speech 
material was prepared for Department personnel invited to 
address public meetings or speak on broadcast programs. 

SERVICES 

During the year, 36,200 answers were returned by mail to 
persons requesting information on Crown land, outdoor 
recreation, nature study, forest tree planting, and forest 
industry. In addition, numerous requests were answered by 
telephone. 

The Photograph Library loaned 9,500 black-and-white 
prints and 1,000 colour transparencies to newspapers and 
magazines. Sets of slides or prints were supplied on request 
to illustrate lectures. The library now has 40,000 negatives 
and 5,500 colour transparencies. 

Section photographers took photographs on assignment 
and supplied prints from the darkroom. 



The Reference Library circulated periodicals and press 
clippings. 

To call for tenders on timber cutting, etc., 171 advertise- 
ments were placed in 34 newspapers and three class maga- 
zines during the year. 

NEW PERIODICAL 

The first issue of "Your Forests" was released in July, 1968, 
with plans for further publication two or three times per 
year in support of the forestry program administered 
through Reforestation Section under The Woodlands Im- 
provement Act. 

NEW PUBLICATIONS 

Scientific papers, management reports, training manuals, 
consolidations of Acts, and Provincial Park leaflets are not 
included in the following list of publications released dur- 
ing the past fiscal year. 

FISH AND WILDLIFE 
Fishes of Ontario ($2.50) (revised) 

Sport Fishes of Ontario ($1.00) (wall chart, revised) 

The Deer Hunt in Ontario 

The Moose Hunt in Ontario 

The Spring Bear Hunt in Ontario 

The Ontario Ruffed Grouse Report, 1964-7 

The Game and Fish Act and the Ontario Fishery Regulations 

Summary of the Ontario Fishery Regulations 

Summary of the Ontario Hunting Regulations 

Provisional Summary of Big Came Hunting Seasons 
in Ontario 

Summary of the Ontario Regulations Which Apply to 
Trapping and Fur Dealing 

OUTDOOR RECRE.ATION 

Hunter's Handbook, Part I 

Instructors' Guide in HunterTraining 

Data on Hunting Accidents 

The Ten Commandments of Hunter Safety (revised) 

Why Hunter Safety Training? (revised) 

The Ontario Outdoorsmans Manual ($0.25) (revised) 

PROVINCIAL PARKS 

Provincial Parks of Ontario (revised) 

Check-List of the Mammals of Algonquin Provincial Park 
(revised) 



83 



Check-List of the Birds of Rondeau Provincial Park (revised) 

LAND AND WATER 
Crown Surveys in Ontario (revised) 
FORESTS 
The Farm Woodlot ($0.50) 
Crowing Christmas Trees in Ontario 
The Forest Trees of Ontario ($0.50) (revised) 
Care and Planting of Forest Trees (revised) 
St. Williams Forest Station (revised) 

FOREST INDUSTRY 

Secondary Wood-Using Industries in Ontario 

RESEARCH 

The Harkness Laboratory of Fisheries Research 

Manual of Common Parasites, Diseases and Anomalies of 
Wildlife in Ontario ($4.00) (revised) 

ADMINISTRATION 

Annual Report of the Minister of Lands and Forests 

Statistics, 1969 

Publications, 1968-9 

Ontario Junior Forest Ranger Program (revised) 



CONSERVATION 

EDUCATION 

SECTION 

The Section conducts an educational program which con- 
sists of the type of appeals calculated to attract public 
interest and explain in easily understandable terms the need 
for the wise use of renewable, natural resources. 

VISUAL EDUCATION 

The Section's film library contains 257 titles with two or 
more prints of many of the titles. All films are available for 
loan to field offices upon request. During the year, approxi- 
mately 1,350 films were shipped to field offices in answer to 
requests received. Each District has its own projection equip- 
ment and each has access to regional film libraries as well 
as the head office film library. 



The Section also loaned 16mm motion picture projectors, 
35mm slide projectors, screens and films to Provincial Parks 
offering an interpretative program to the public during the 
summer months. 

During the year, the following films were added to head 
office and field film libraries: 

Aircraft in Forest Fire Control 

Flames in the Forest 

Foresters 

Forest Regions of Canada 

The House the Wasp Built 

A Place to Stand 

Right to Burn 

Seeds to Trees 

That They May Live 

Training Fire Pump Crews 

Trigger Happy Harry 

Wild Wings 

Wonders in a Country Stream 

Several thousand feet of motion picture film were avail- 
able for use by television stations in Ontario. In addition, a 
set of ten one-minute television shorts was prepared for 
distribution to Ontario television stations covering various 
subjects related to Department activities such as forest fire 
prevention, nursery operations, wildfowl, timber scaling. 
Provincial Parks and litter prevention. 

Two new films were started, one on General Recreation 
in Northern Ontario and one on Logging Safety. 

RADIO AND TELEVISION 

Radio and television stations throughout the Province have 
been most generous in their donations of free time to the 
Department, and District offices regularly take advantage of 
these opportunities to appeal to the public. 

LECTURE TOURS 

The Department kept in touch with the public through fish 
and game associations, schools, church groups, service clubs 
and youth organizations. Illustrated lectures were given on 
all aspects of the Department's work. 

A total of 3,150 lectures was given to audiences totalling 
248,214 during the past fiscal year. The totals included 855 
lectures to 89,970 school children and 987 lectures given by 
Ontario Forestry Association personnel to 21,175 persons. 



84 



EXHIBITS 

Visual conservation appeals are featured in the Department's 
exhibits at many of the shows and fairs in Ontario. The 
major exhibits handled through this Section were as follows. 

Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto. Our exhibit space 
in the Ontario Government Building consisted of a fish 
aquarium 100 feet in length, divided into 20 separate tanks; 
above these tanks are safety cartoon panels and 10 panels of 
the woods of Ontario. Other exhibits featured a portable 
building consisting of 22 cages for animals and birds. Also 
featured were Indians demonstrating their skill with leather 
and beadwork; snakes and turtles; hunter safety training; 
Crown land cottage sites; wild fur; and an animated Tower 
lack giving warnings of forest fire dangers. A map of Ontario 
made from the provincial hardwoods was displayed at the 
information desk. The Conservation Poster Contest for 
school children from six to fourteen years of age was popu- 
lar again this year. A Grand Prize of $100.00 was presented 
for the best poster. First, second and third prizes, in each 
of three age groups, in the amounts of $50.00, $25.00 and 



$15.00, were awarded. Thirty "Honourable Mentions", ten 
in each age group, were presented with books. 

Canadian National Sportsmen's Show, Toronto. Our exhibit 
featured 16 cages of Ontario's wildlife and eight tanks of 
fish, and displays related to Provincial Parks, lands and 
surveys, forest protection, hunter safety (good hunter- 
landowner relations), anti-litter, and a photographic repre- 
sentation of careers in the Department. 

Central Canada Exhibition, Ottawa. Our exhibit here fea- 
tured Ontario's fish and wildlife. Provincial Parks, illegal 
and defective guns, and furs of Ontario. 

Royal Agricultural Winter Fair, Toronto. Our exhibit fea- 
tured the story of reforestation from the initial stages, cones, 
seeds and seedlings, through to shipping to the woodlot 
owner; the proper planting methods were demonstrated. A 
talk was given by foresters to organized school classes 
visiting with their teachers. Native wild animals were also 
featured. 

Aid to Districts. Full co-operation was given to District 
offices participating in sportsmen's shows and agricultural 



Staff member shows children how to recognize poison ivy. 




fairs such as the Western Fair at London, the International 
Plowing Match at Guelph, the Timmins Sportsmen's Show, 
the Canadian Lakehead Exhibition at Port Arthur, and the 
Chatham Sportsmen's Show. 

EXHIBIT AWARD 

Our exhibit at the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair won the 
1968 International Award for "Exhibit Excellence", awarded 
by the American Association for Conservation Information. 



ACCIDENT CONTROL 



SECTION 



With the contmuing development of our safety program 
aimed at a reduction in loss of life, personal injury and 
property damage, the work-load is increasing, and one 
additional accident control officer was added to field staff, 
bringing the total to eleven, including three regional 
supervisors. 

THE LOGGERS' SAFETY ACT 

Enforcement of this Act is mainly a case of safety education. 
The large operators have excellent safety programs, gener- 
ally speaking, but the smaller operators do not and cannot 
afford such programs, and it is in this area that our assistance 
is most needed. We do, however, participate in all logging 
safety programs wherever possible. 

During the year, our officers made over 3,500 inspections 
under the Act, giving advice on safety matters and issuing 
warnings and stop-work orders for serious infractions of 
the Act and Regulations. 

While the number of accidents showed an increase over 
the previous year, this was partially due to a change in 
reporting procedures. There were 14 fatal accidents, a 
decrease of five from the report of last year. 

HUNTER SAFETY TRAINING 

To improve the quality of this program, it was decided to 
upgrade the instruction. A new examination for instructors 
was developed, and all existing instructors who wished to 
continue in the program were required to be retested. Suc- 
cessful applicants totalled 904. In addition to this, each 
instructor is required to conduct at least one class each year 
to remain on the active list, and, in any case, must be re- 
examined every three years. 

At the same time, a new Instructors' Guide in Hunter 
Training was developed, and a hunter's handbook for new 
hunters was produced. 



During the year, 13,030 Students were instructed, and it 
was the consensus that the students applying for examina- 
tion for hunting licences were considerably more know- 
ledgeable than in previous years. 

SAFETY IN PROVINCIAL PARKS 

Field officers of the Accident Control Section make frequent 
inspections in Provincial Parks, reporting hazardous or 
unsafe conditions to the proper authority for immediate 
remedial action. (The Section is not responsible for the 
beach patrol maintained in some parks.) 

During the months of July, August and September, the 
Department sponsored a water-safety demonstration pro- 
gram presented by the Ontario Safety League in about 35 
Provincial Parks. While it is estimated that persons present 
at these demonstrations totalled approximately 175,000, 
many more thousands received benefit through the ser- 
vices of television stations which covered the demonstra- 
tions. 

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION 

The Workmen's Compensation Act was amended on August 
1, 1968, increasing costs to the employer. Department costs 
for 1968-9 reached a high of $248,380.59, an increase of 
$31,595.35 over the previous fiscal year. The total included 
$143,437.04 for compensation claims costs; $87,439.29 for 
pension claims costs, an increase on the year of $30,455.82, 
96 per cent of the overall increase; and $17,504.26 for 
administrative costs. 

Compensable claims numbered 759, an increase of 43 
over the previous year; the percentage of staff involved in 
accidents increased by 0.8. The average cost per claim was 
$187, a decrease of $13 on the year. 

Fire control projects cost $5,005.94 includmg $1,309.15 
for fire fighting costs. Junior Ranger costs increased slightly. 

Seven new pensions for permanent disability were 
established. 

Three deaths occurred during the year. A pension was 
established for the dependants of one employee killed in a 
plane crash. 

The Injury Frequency Rate in 1968-9 was 17.4, an increase 
from 15.7 in 1967-8 and from 13.8 in 1966-7. The rate refers 
to compensable injuries that require a lay-off from work 
beyond the day of accident. 

The Lands and Forests Safely Trophy was won by Ceraldton 
Forest District with a 1968-9 record of one compensable 
lost-time injury in 45,679 man-days worked for an Injury 
Frequency Rate of 2.2. 



86 




RESEARCH 
BRANCH 



Research Branch is divided into an Administration group 
and three sections, each with its subordinate units, with 
the following duties and responsibilities. 

ADMINISTRATION 

Supervises research programs, operates and maintains South- 
ern Research Station, and provides the following technical 
services. 

Blomathematics and Statistics: Sampling and experimental 
designs, computer programs, data analyses and interpreta- 
tions, and consulting services. 

Drafting: Maps, charts, diagrams, and designs for reports 
and field use. 

Mechanical: Design, development and fabrication of unique 
equipment; and engineering services. 

Library: Library service including abstracting ser\'ice and 
inter-library loan by telex. 

Photograptiy: Photographs and processes in black-and-uhite 
and colour, macro and micro photography, and still and 
motion pictures. 

FISHERIES SECTION 

GREAT LAKES UNITS: Fisheries Research Stations at Glenora 
(Lake Ontario), Wheatley (Lake Eriej, South Baymouth (Lake 
Huron), and Sault Ste. Marie {Lake Superior). 

CAME FISH UNITS: Lake Trout, Brook Trout, Smallmouth 
Bass, Kokanee, and Walleye. 

DISCIPLINE UNITS: Selective Breeding, Parasitology, Lim- 
nology, Productivity, and Technical Studies. 

FORESTRY SECTION 

Maple Units: Developmental, Forest Economics, Ecology, 
Tree Nutrition, Mensuration, Wood Science, Nursery and 
Plantation, Seed Research, Site, and Tree Breeding. 

Field Units: Southwestern (Maple), Mid-Western (Port 
Arthur), South-Central (Dorset), Central (Sault Ste. Marie), 
and Southeastern (Tweed). 

WILDLIFE SECTION 

The Wildlife Research Station is located in Algonquin Park. 
The following units are located at Maple. 

Big Came 

Fur bearers 

Predators 

Upland Came and Waterfowl 

Wildlife Diseases and Parasites 



87 



FISHERIES SECTION 

GREAT LAKES UNITS 

LAKE ONTARIO UNIT 

The whitefish fishery continued to show improvement 
following experimental closure for spawning fish on lake- 
shore grounds. There are no indications of a return of the 
Bay of Quinte whitefish spawning runs. 

The first of three scheduled plantings of yearling splake 
amounting to 24,000 was completed. Commercial fisher- 
men will be paid for the return of any of these taken in 
their nets. Spawning is not anticipated before 1970. 

A survey by the vessel Namaycush included investiga- 
tions of near-bottom dissolved oxygen conditions in mid- 
July and mid-August. No areas of oxygen depletion were 
noted. 

An important analysis was made on the relationship be- 
tween numbers of smelt netted and size of net mesh. 

Environmental monitoring at several locations indicate 
significant increases in phosphates and nitrates in the past 
four years. 

A program of tagging and releasing American eels has 
been in progress since 1958. Physical characteristics have 
been placed on computer cards to produce a morphological 
index of maturity. The commercial catch continues to 
decline. 

Results in attempts to introduce the kokanee, a pelagic, 
plankton feeder in its native waters, into Lake Ontario have 
so far been negative. Studies of the downstream behavior 
were made in the laboratory and in Shelter Valley Creek. An 
additional 228,000 fry were planted in Shelter Valley Creek, 

LAKE ERIE UNIT 

Fish stock were monitored by sampling commercial catches. 
This provides a substantial body of data at minimum 
expense. 

A year-to-year Index for relative abundance of all fish 
species was established by experimental fishing. This is 
useful in predicting, at least qualitatively, the success of 
commercial fishing for these species one or two years 
hence. 

Studies continue on the timing of smelt runs in relation 
to weather, and vital statistics of the spawning fish have 
been thoroughly documented. Incidence of the parasite 
Glugea remains high, but there is no evidence yet of 
mortality. 



Walleye spawning areas were surveyed and described. A 
study of the productive potential ot Thames River Walleye 
was initiated and will continue. A study on movements of 
this species was completed and reported. 

LAKE HURON UNIT 

Experimental pound-net samplings show a continued de- 
cline in abundance of alewives, an increase in ciscoes, a 
stable pattern in whitefish and a decline in both yellow 
perch and suckers. 

Gill net surveys in southern Lake Huron indicate a situa- 
tion common to the whole lake, that undesirable species 
dominate the catch. 

Smelt index stations indicate a decline in this species. 

Studies of young whitefish would seem to indicate that 
year-class strength is determined by survival at the egg 
stage rather than elsewhere in its life history. 

Commercial catches of whitefish are sampled to describe 
the dynamics of growth, mortality and exploitation of the 
population and to segregate total mortality into components 
attributable to fishing and non-fishing causes. 

Branding splake. 




88 



The monitoring of commercial catches will be important 
in evaluating the kokanee introduction, splake introduc- 
tions, and the changes in the fishing resulting from lamprey 
control measures. 

Captures of planted hybrid splake from introductions of 
1966-8 indicate that 98 per cent of the 2,000 caught were 
within ten miles of the planting site. Stomach contents 
showed that fish were feeding on cottids, smelt and ale- 
wives. Lamprey scars were numerous from August to No- 
vember. It was found that splake were spawning in former 
lake trout spawning beds. The mean length of splake taken 
was 33.8 cm. 

A shortage of kokanee eggs necessitated a reduction in 
planting to 20,000. Detailed observations on sex ratios, 
numbers of fish and temperature were made on several 
runs. The return of mature kokanee was down from the 
previous year. Proof of natural reproduction was established. 

A part of this study included a survey of spawning beds, 
recording gravel size, water and gravel depths, type of 
substrata, and weed cover area. This data will be useful in 
determining the suitability of other gravel beds as spawning 
sites. 

Data collected supported earlier evidence that growth 
of kokanee in South Bay is slower than in Lake Huron 
proper. An analysis of fish stomachs was made to see if feed- 
ing was a factor. 

Data collected from creel census studies predict a con- 
tinued decline in the smallmouth bass population. There is 
a positive relationship between warm summers and strong 
year classes which explains the decline. 

LAKE SUPERIOR UNIT 

This is a new unit, established in 1967 when Ontario ac- 
cepted responsibility for all fisheries research in Lake 
Superior. There was extensive co-operation with the 
Fisheries Research Board in the lake trout rehabilitation 
assessment program and a lake trout spawning survey. 

GAME FISH UNITS 

LAKE TROUT UNIT 

Creel census information shows a decline in size of fish 

taken, but more fish taken per unit effort of fishing in Lake 

Opeongo. 

Present closing practices do not seem to have resulted in 
improved angling success as shown by creel census studies 
on other lakes. 

Studies on the role of food and feeding on the history of 
the lake trout have indicated that changes in available food 
have resulted in an accelerated growth rate. 



BROOK TROUT UNIT 

This unit is determining population size and structure over 
a period of years, monitoring fishing pressure and resultant 
yield, and assessing reproductive capacity and factors which 
determine this capacity. 

Preliminary analysis suggests that lack of suitable spawn- 
ing areas limits production. 

Other studies include the role of hatchery fish in manage- 
ment of brook trout lakes. Planting methods, use of fish 
toxicants, bottom fauna, competition from suckers and 
artificial spawning beds are also being investigated. 

SMALLMOUTH BASS UNIT 

Activities of this unit involve the determination by direct 
observation of the daily activity patterns and their seasonal 
changes within various size and age groups. Coincidental 
with this is the capture and tagging to determine popula- 
tion estimates. 

WALLEYE UNIT 

This program is also largely based upon direct observation 
using SCUBA gear and is aimed at assessing environmental 
conditions preferred by walleye. It has been determined 
that light is more important in influencing location than is 
temperature. Shelter, therefore, is important under day- 
light conditions. Water-level fluctuations also affect distri- 
bution. 

New and more reliable age determination techniques 
were assessed. 

A walleye bibliography of 1,600 references has been 
accumulated and will be published. 

DISCIPLINES UNITS 

LIMNOLOGY UNIT 

This unit is standardizing limnological data collections 
among fisheries research units and other agencies. 

A small-pond study is aimed at comparing the physical, 
chemical and biological conditions in a variety of ponds 
and small lakes in southern Ontario to learn their productiv- 
ity, actual and potential. 

Studies conducted into gill-net selectivity show that form 
of the selectivity curve varies with species of fish. 

Changes in the physical and chemical environment of 
the Laurentian Great Lakes were reported. 

SELECTIVE BREEDING UNIT 

Studies of the life history and ecology of successive genera- 
tions of splake in natural conditions to determine what 
to expect of the performance of highly selected splake plant- 
ing, when made, are being carried out. 



89 



PARASITOLOGY UNIT 

Because of the increasing number of specimens being sub- 
mitted for examination, material is being prepared for a 
manual of the common fish parasites found in Ontario. 

PRODUCTIVITY UNIT 

The broad objective is the development of a practical index 
for classification of Ontario lakes in terms of their potential 
for producing pounds of fish. Total dissolved solids and 
mean depth have been established as two main indicators. 

TECHNICAL STUDIES UNIT 

This unit provides specialized services in identification and 
counting of phyto and zoo plankton organisms and of the 
identification and measurement of bottom fauna and fish 
food organisms. 

FORESTRY SECTION 

MAPLE UNITS 

NURSERY AND PLANTATION 

A report is in preparation on the culling and grading of 
nursery stock based on 10 years of observations on v^'hite 
spruce planting stock. 

Studies are continuing on "Comparison of Seedlings and 
Transplants", "Over Winter Storage of Nursery Stock", 
"Nutrient Coorelations", "Fertilizing at Planting", "Planting 
Check", "Root Coating" and "Seedbed Densities". 

Frost-hardiness studies to date indicate that, when white 
spruce and red pine are compared at similar stages of 
development, the white spruce is somewhat hardier in the 
summer and considerably hardier in the winter. Most coni- 
fers begin to increase their frost hardiness in early Septem- 
ber, but the rate varies with species. 

Preliminary examination of drought-study data shows 
that red pine is more susceptible to drought than white 
spruce. Drought rings are not similar to frost rings. 

TREE BREEDING 

Two groups of poplar projects are being carried out — the 
Aspen group and the Cottonwood group. The primary 
objectives are to produce strains with improved silvicultural 
characteristics, suitable for future needs of timber produc- 
tion under varying conditions in Ontario and to extend the 
northern range of Cottonwood. 

Many exotic and native poplars have been acquired for a 
gene pool for development of breeding aboreta and for 
testing. 



Several experiments on vegetative propagation have been 
established to study the techniques. Also being studied is 
the ability of selected native aspens and their hybrids to 
sucker and root, and to develop superior clones which pro- 
pagate easily by vegetative means. 

A spruce program to develop hybrids of superior growth 
form and wood quality, and to develop multilineal synthetic 
varieties with superior silvicultural characteristics, continues. 

Several experiments were established to determine if 
there is a practical way to propagate spruce vegetatively. 
Best results to date were from hard, untrimmed cuttings 
from lateral branches. 

Emphasis on the white pine program has shifted from re- 
sistance to blister rust and weevil to improvement of growth 
form, stem form, branchiness and shade tolerance. Experi- 
ments on vegetative propagation were started to obtain 
means of more accurate clonal testing and to prevent the 
loss of genetic gain achieved in the selection of superior 
and resistant trees. 

WOOD SCIENCE 

Studies continue to define the specific physical and chemi- 
cal wood characteristics which contribute to the superior 
quality of the manufactured product and to relate these 
characteristics to heritable and environmental factors. 

A method for the assessment of the average specific 
gravity and compression wood percent, of all the wood in 
the bole of standing black spruce trees, is under develop- 
ment. Preliminary statistical analysis indicates that a linear 
relationship for trees can be established from core samples. 

It has been found that compression wood percent is a 
better indicator of pulp yield than is specific gravity. 

SITE 

Emphasis is upon research that will provide basic quantita- 
tive data in areas of nutrient availability, forest humus, 
moisture availability, water balance and root-soil relation- 
ships. 

Two studies on site classification are being finalized. 
They deal with the development of concepts for the classi- 
fication of ecosystems and the demonstration of broad 
relationships between physical characteristics of the land 
and the development of forests. 

MENSURATION 

The measurement and treatment of permanent sample plots, 
established to furnish data on the yield of plantations in 
southern Ontario, was continued. 

Studies are continuing to make quantitative determina- 
tions of the potential of various physiographic sites to 



90 



produce hardwoods. This is accomplished by measuring the 
yield of fully stocked upland hardwood stands and estimat- 
ing the growth throughout the age of the stand by stem- 
analysis techniques. 

FOREST ECONOMICS 

The purpose of this unit is to advise on the economic aspects 
in the planning of forest research projects and to participate 
in the research requiring economic analysis. A comprehen- 
sive paper on the various aspects of Soviet forestry was pre- 
pared, and a library research conducted on the theory of the 
sustained-yield principle. 

TREE NUTRITION 

A report on fertilization of jack pine was published, showing 
results after six years. Growth and cone production were 
increased. 

One-year growth of poplar hybrids. 




Two years after fertilizing red pine on a sand plain, results 
showed that growth of larger trees had increased, apparently 
at the expense of the smaller trees. 

A fertilization program of black spruce in the Clay Belt is 
under study. Urea was applied from aircraft at the rate of 111 
lbs. and 222 lbs. per acre. 

Various methods of analysis for determination of N, P, K, 
Ca and Mg have been tested for the purpose of selecting 
the most accurate and economical techniques. 

SEED RESEARCH 

Studies continue in relating seed size and density to germi- 
native capacity and subsequent seedling survival and 
growth. 

It has been determined that for high density seed, ger- 
mination was slightly lower for largest and smallest size 
classes, and this relationship became more pronounced as 
seed density was reduced. 

Seedlings have been planted out for determination of 
future growth rate. 

Various forms of seed treatment, prior to sowing, have 
been tried to improve germination, and these studies are 
continuing. 

ECOLOGY 

Studies continued on the regeneration and reforestation of 
pine and spruce and on the quality development of pre- 
ferred species, especially sugar maple, in the tolerent hard- 
woods of southern Ontario. 

Models have been developed to express the relationship 
of tree growth rate to environmental factors and tree 
attributes. 

Current analysis of this data involves relating the results 
of the cultural isolation work to wound attributes (such as 
size, age, rate of healing, etc.) to whole-tree attributes 
(growth rate, age, etc.) and the type and amount of stain 
and decay associated with the wound. 

DEVELOPMENTAL 

The work of this unit has been to improve the techniques 
and equipment used in the tubed seedling programs. 
Laboratory work to eliminate frost heaving is in progress. 

FIELD UNITS 

NORTHERN ONTARIO 

The main objective is to conduct a program that will pro- 
vide information for the efficient silvicultural management 
of the spruce-fir forest in northern Ontario. 



91 



92 



Hydraulically operated cone picking tower. 



Effects of conventional harvesting have been under study 
for several years. The accumulated data on all study areas 
were analysed to determine the changes in species com- 
position after logging or fire. 

The effects of modified harvesting, in which spruce is 
favoured by scarification, show a substantial increase in 
spruce, but the balsam fir still predominates. 

Data from seven areas are being analysed to test pre- 
liminary conclusions and to establish prediction relation- 
ships based on growth, competition, mortality and in- 
growth. 

Studies to control balsam fir, by close utilization, pur- 
poseful destruction and use of synthetic auxins to inhibit 
flowering, are being carried out. 

CENTRAL ONTARIO 

The following program is being carried out in this unit. 

A study of the ecology, productivity, nutrient cycling, 
growth and nutrition, sites, specific gravity, regeneration 
and ground-flora relationships of red spruce, with com- 
parative measurements on white and black spruce for eco- 
system models of these species. 

A study of the performance and efficiency with respect 
to growth and nutrition, the genetics and taxonomical re- 
lationships, including species and racial variation, within 
the spruce genus. 

To investigate the taxonomical, physiological and gene- 
tical relationships within and between spruce species, a 
large number of other provenances, species and hybrids 
are being grown by the tubeling method. An accelerated 
growth rate and enforced dormancy, varying day-length and 
artificial low-temperature regimes enable the production of 
two-year seedlings within a single calendar year. 

SOUTH-CENTRAL ONTARIO 

This unit deals with the silvics, silviculture and management 
of the tolerant hardood forest. Of major importance is 
the need to establish for Algonquin Provincial Park a fair 
and sensible balance between competing land-use interests. 

An experiment was established to study the differences 
in growth and quality which develop under different stock- 
ing levels in sugar maple and associated species. 

It is also intended to demonstrate that felling of large or 
defective trees can be accomplished with minimal damage 
to residual trees, and that a viable logging operation can be 
conducted with light mechanical equipment and without 
removing all of the merchantable material. 

A study is being conducted to determine the volume and 
value of different grades of yellow birch and sugar maple 
trees for various diameters. 



SOUTHEASTERN ONTARIO 

The principle project of this unit has been prescribed burn- 
ing in tolerant hardwood stands to study its effects and 
determine its role in hardwood management. 

It is now known that one or two burns, followed by cut- 
ting, will create excellent conditions for yellow birch re- 
generation. 

Studies are being conducted in the regeneration prob- 
lems of basswood, a valuable component of the tolerant 
hardwood forest. Propogation studies, including seed 
quality and germination, are included. 

Various methods of establishing forest cover on shallow 
soils have been under investigation. One technique is the 
use of water-saturated peat wedges planted in augur-drilled 
holes. 

SOUTHWESTERN ONTARIO 
Two principal projects are being carried out to develop 
practical techniques for the selection, mass production, 
establishment and culture of fast growing, veneer-quality 
phenotypes of the commercially important hardwood 
species in agricultural Ontario. 

A study on the chemical thinning and release by basal 
treatments on some common hardwood species was com- 
pleted. 

The use of the tubed seedling technique for production 
of hardwoods was investigated, and indications are that 
tubeling stock suitable for field planting can be grown from 
seed in one year. 

WILDLIFE SECTION 

Wildlife research has been directed toward the gathering 
of knowledge about the characteristics of economically 
important birds and mammals and toward finding means by 
which these could be of greater value to the trapper, hunter, 
naturalist and the general public. 

Research projects have been developed around most of 
the major species of wildlife in Ontario. Staff recruitment 
and development has aimed for the provision of specialists 
to study these species. No attempt to organize the program 
on a regional basis has been made. 

The Wildlife Research Station provided living accom- 
modation and research facilities for Research Branch per- 
sonnel, and staff and graduate students from the University 
of Toronto, McMaster University, University of Guelph, 
Queen's University and the School of Hygiene and Tropical 
Medicine, University of London (England). 



93 



Research programs dealt with the ecology, taxonomy, 
behavior and parasitological relationships of white tailed 
deer, timber wolves, black bears, beaver, marten, ground 
hogs, varying hare, mice, shrews, chipmunks and squirrels 
as well as waterfowl, songbirds, black flies, mosquitoes, 
fleas, mites and ticks. 

FURBEARERS 

Three projects dealing with beaver were conducted: An 
annual census of population levels in the Algonquin Pro- 
vincial Park area; an annual survey of levels and distribu- 
tions of populations in Patricia Central and West; and an 
investigation of population levels and distributions in the 
Indian Band area of Round Lake. An aerial survey of the 
Park beaver population, based upon an eight per cent 
sample, indicated a 35 per cent increase over the preceding 
year. 

Over 400 otter carcases, previously collected, were 
examined; they yielded useful and interesting information. 
Male otters reach sexual maturity at two years and have an 
activity pattern that peaks in April and May. The cubs are 
born in April. The existence of the phenomenon of delayed 
implantation was confirmed. 

WILDLIFE DISEASES 
AND PARASITES 

The surveillance of the occurrences of diseases and para- 
sites of wildlife continued; 107 specimens (61 mammalian 
and 46 avian) were processed. The Manual of Common 
Parasites, Diseases and Anomalies of Wildlife of Ontario, 
used by Fish and Wildlife field staff, was reprinted with the 
addition of four common parasites. 

Two provincial surveys to determine the status of the 
kidney worm have been completed. The parasite was re- 
covered from 1.5% of 126 weasels, 2.2% of 90 otters, 1% 
of 1,102 timber wolves, 0.9% of 854 coyotes, and 18% of 
3,741 mink. 

A manuscript, dealing in part with the incidence and 
frequency of occurrence of the kidney worm in Ontario, 
was prepared for inclusion in the book, "Diseases of Wild- 
life", being published by Iowa State University Press. 

A complete parasitological and pathological examina- 
tion of 68 beaver taken in a beaver population reduction 
program in the Chapleau district revealed that 97 per cent 
hosted some form of parasite. 

A study of moose diseases and parasites in Chapleau 
Crown Game Preserve indicates that the black bear may be 



a final host of the tapeworm, Taenia krabbei, a role formerly 
considered to be played only by the wolf. Studies are con- 
tinuing to determine if there is any difference in the mor- 
phology of the adult worm as it occurs in bears and wolves. 

The red fox was the major wildlife vector in the spread of 
rabies, followed by skunks. 

Various techniques for age determination of foxes were 
tested. Tooth cementum annuli, prepared by a simple 
grinding process, is now the method used. 

The unit has undertaken the development of a suitable 
baiting technique to administer an oral rabies vaccine to 
wildlife, particularly foxes. 

UPLAND GAME AND WATERFOWL 

Studies of food habits of four species of grouse reveal 
that catkin-bearing trees and shrubs, such as trembling 
aspen, the birches, ironwood and hazel, are important in 
the winter diet of ruffed and sharptailed grouse. The spruce 
grouse feeds almost entirely on jack pine, while the willow 
ptarmigan depends upon willow buds. 

The aerial survey of productivity of Canada and snow 
geese in the James Bay-Southeastern Hudson Bay region 
showed that snow geese are down but that Canada geese 
had a good year. 

The Kinoje Lake nesting study of Canada geese was con- 
tinued with co-operation from six states of the Mississippi 
Flyway. Data were collected on changes in clutch sizes, 
desertion, predation, egg measurements, nest site charac- 
teristics, temperatures, water levels, break up, and plant 
and animal phenology. 

BIG GAME 

A study to examine the relationships between a group of 
deer and its environment was conducted at two locations, 
one in the Tweed district (Canonto study area), the other in 
the Parry Sound district (Pakesley study area). Emphasis was 
placed on basic productivity of the herd and hunting mor- 
tality to determine a standard to which other range types 
and population levels may be compared and to aid in 
interpretation of kill statistics. 

A report on the effects of snow cover on mobility and 
local distribution of deer in Algonquin Provincial Park was 
prepared. 

An assessment of the effects on deer activity of deer 
range improvement practices in a hemlock-hardwood deer 
yard was carried out and will continue with browse surveys, 
crotising counts and track counts. 



94 




Female polar bear with three cubs, Akimiski Island. 

Intensive trials of the capabilities of remote sensing 
devices for censusing big game were held through co- 
operation with the National Aeronautical Establishment and 
other agencies. Tests were made with air-borne sensing 
devices in relation to big game management. This was pri- 
marily an assessment of techniques and interpretation of 
imagery obtained from infra-red scanning devices and 
photography. 

PREDATORS 

Most of the work on predators to date has been confined 
to wolves. Polar and black bears are now being considered, 
and aerial flights to determine the numbers and distribution 
of polar bears along the Hudson Bay wash were made. 

Studies continue on the predator — prey relationships be- 
tween wolves and deer and beaver in an area where both 



groups are subject to human exploitation. The wolf popula- 
tion has remained essentially stable. 

Radio collars, fitted to captured wolves, were used to 
monitor their movements and study behavior patterns. 
Work continued in the development of age determination 
of wolves and coyotes. 

A study to determine the rate of reproduction of wolves 
and coyotes throughout various sections of the province, 
and to determine the influence of food and range conditions 
on productivity, continues. 

It was learned during behavior studies of polar bears that 
they are afraid of humans and have an apparent sense of 
security in the sea. 

A report on all possible uces within the Department of 
satellite photography is in preparation. The application of 
data from these photographs to studies of waterfowl and 
polar bears in the Hudson Bay lowlands is of particular 
interest. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Published during the year ending March 31, 1969. 

FISHERIES SECTION 

Budd, ). C, F. E. J. Fry, and J. B. Smith. Survival of marked 
Lake Trout in Lake Manitou, Manitoulin Island, Ontario. 
J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 25(11): 2257-2268. 

Eraser, J. M. Effect of air planting on domestic brook trout. 
Prog. Fish-Cult. Vol. 30, No. 3, July, 1968. 

McDermott, L. A. and A. H. Berst. Experimental plantings of 
brook trout {Salvelinus fontinalis) from furunculosis-in- 
fected stock. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 25(12): 2643-2649. 

Ricker, W. E. and K. H. Loftus. Pacific Salmon Move East. 
Fisheries Council of Canada, Annual Review, 1968. 

Ryder, R. A. Dynamics and Exploitation of Mature Walleyes, 
Stizostedion vitreum vitreum, in the Nipigon Bay Region 
of Lake Superior. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 25(7): 1347- 
1376. 

Special Reports 

Martin, N. V. The Harkness Laboratory of Fisheries Research. 
Department publication. 

Research Report 

A symposium on introduction of exotic species. Research 
Report #82. 



95 



Section Reports 

Status of fisheries research projects for the year 1967. Sec- 
tion Report #67. 

Smith, J. B. Former lake trout spawning grounds in Lake 
Huron. Section Report #68. 



FORESTRY SECTION 

Boissonneau, A. N. Glacial history of northeastern Ontario, 
Part II, Timiskaming-Algoma area. Can. J. Earth Sci. 5, pp 
97-109. 

Burgar, R. J. and N. F. Lyon. Survival and growth of stored 
and unstored white spruce planted through the frost-free 
period. Ont. Dept. of Lands & Forests Research Report 
No. 84. 

Carmichael, A. J. Shallow sand cover gives best germination 
of black spruce seeds. Tree Planters' Notes. Vol. 19:1. 

Fayle, D. C. F. Radial growth in tree roots. Univ. of Toronto 
Tech. Rep. No. 9. 

Clerum, C. and C. Pierpoint. The influence of soil moisture 
deficits on seedling growth of three coniferous species. 
For. Chron: 44(5). 

Heimburger, C. Poplar breeding in Canada. In: Growth and 
utilization of poplars in Canada. For. Branch, Can. Dept. 
Fish and For. Publ. No. 1205, pp 88-100. 

Holowacz, J. Forestry LJSSR; industry and production. P.&P. 
Mag. of Can. pp. 112-120. 

Holowacz, J. Peculiarities of Canadian forestry, by Niko- 
laiuk, V. A., Artsybashev, E. S. and Telegin, N. P. "Lesnoe 
Khoziaistvo", No. 6, pp. 88-91. Trans. 

Ladell, J. W., A. J. Carmichael and G. H. S. Thomas. Current 
work in Ontario on compression wood in black spruce in 
relation to pulp yield and quality. North Central For. Expt. 
Sta. Res. Paper NC-23. 

Mullin, R. E. A note on field success of Dunemann stock. 
Jour. For. Vol. 66:9. 

Mullin, R. E. Spring planting with jack pine transplants 
recommended for blueberry-sweetfern sites in northern 
Ontario. For. Chron. Vol. 44:4. 



Mullin, R. E. Comparisons between seedlings and transplants 
in fall and spring plantings. Ont. Dept. of Lands & Forests 
Res. Rep. No. 85. 

Saul, G. H. Copper safely controls the roots of tubed seed- 
lings. Tree Planters' Notes, Vol. 19:1. 



WILDLIFE SECTION 

Brohx, P., D. Bates and D. Simkin. Vegetation patterns of the 
Hudson Bay Lowlands. (Map) Ont. Dept. of Lands & 
Forests (in press). 

Fyvie, A. Papillomatosis in a moose. Research Note (Wild- 
life) No. 12. 

F>'vie, A. Disease and parasitism in wildlife in Ontario as 
reported on Form Res. 49 in 1966 and 1967. Resource 
Mgt.Rpt. 93:1-12. 

Fyvie, A. Manual of Common Diseases, Parasites and 
Anomalies of Wildlife. Revisions and additions to 2nd 
edition. Ont. Dept. of Lands and Forests (in press). 

Fyvie, A. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) — in Diseases 

of Wildlife. Iowa State University Press (in press). 

Hepburn, R. Experimental management of mixed conifer 
swamps for deer and timber in eastern Ontario. Section 
Report (Wildlife) No. 69 (in press). 

Hill, D. C, E. V. Evans and H. G. Lumsden. Metabolizable 
energy of aspen flower buds for captive ruffed grouse. 
J. Wildl.Mgt., 32(4): 854-858. 

Lumsden, H. G. The displays of the sage grouse. Research 
Report (Wildlife) No. 83. 

Lumsden, H. G. A hybrid grouse {Lagopus x Canachites) 
from northern Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. (in press). 

Pimlott, D. H., J. Shannon and G. Kolenosky. The ecology 
of the timber wolf in Algonquin Provincial Park. Research 
Report (Wildlife) No. 87 (in press). 

Simkin, D. W. Red-throated loon nesting in northern On- 
tario. Can. Field-Nat. 82(1): 49. 

Stephenson, A. B. Temperatures in a beaver lodge in winter. 
J. Mammal, (in press). 

Watson, A., R. Parr and H. G. Lumsden. Differences in the 
downy young of red grouse, willow grouse and rock 
ptarmigan. Brit. Birds (in press). 



96 




Timber Branch is divided into three sections and their 
subordinate units with duties and responsibilities as follows. 

REFORESTATION 

• Tree Production and Distribution: Producing and dis- 
tributing planting stocks; and securing and distributing 
quality tree seed. 

• Agreement Forests: Administering forestry agreements 
with municipal corporations and conservation authorities 
for the management of their forest lands; and advising 
municipalities on by-laws respecting conservation of tree 
cover. 

• Private Land Forestry: Promoting and implementing 
forestry programs for use by private landowners under The 
Woodlands Improvement Act. 

SILVICULTURE 

• Forest Resources Inventory: Continuing program of re- 
inventory; compilation of reports and maps for Crown 
Management Units; checking of Company inventory data; 
determination of productive areas on timber licences; 
preparation of contour plans; and Air Photo Library and 
map photo service. 

• Sllvicultural Operations: Direction of the regeneration 
and stand improvement programs on Crown lands and on 
lands acquired for management under agreement. 

TIMBER 

• Management Planning: Supervision of management plan 
preparation; preparation of planning manuals and volume 
tables; calculation of allowable cuts; and the direction of 
access roads program. 

• Scaling: Measurement of timber cut on Crown lands; 
development of new methods of measurement; and licens- 
ing and registration of scalers. 

• Marketing and Forest Economics: Development of indus- 
trial expansion; analysis of the economics of timber pro- 
duction; mill licensing; publication of industry directories 
and of regional studies of timber availability; and compila- 
tion of forestry statistics. 

• Sale of Timber: Issuance of timber licences; preparation 
of final returns for collection of stumpage charges; and 
compilation of cut statistics. 



TIMBER 
BRANCH 



97 



REFORESTATION SECTION 



TREE PRODUCTION 

AND DISTRIBUTION 

TREE PRODUCTION 

To meet the increasing demand for planting stock, sufficient 
seed was sown at the ten forest tree nurseries for the pro- 
duction of 100,000,000 trees, an increase of 43 per cent in 
the production aim over 1967-8. 

Nursery Stock Production Target by Nurseries 



District 


Nursery 


Production Target 


I 


Kemptville 


Kemptville 


15,031,000 


1 


Kenora 


Dryden 


12,223,000 


I 


Lake Erie 


St. Williams 


7,909,000 


1 


Lake Simcoe 


Midhurst 


14,734,000 


1 


Lindsay 


Orono 


11,609,000 


w 


Port Arthur 


Fort William 


16,392,000 


^ 


Swastika 


Swastika 


16,602,000 


D 


Chapleau 


Chapleau 


2,000,000 


}K 


Sudbury 


Cogama 


1,500,000 


'. 


SaultSte. Marie 


Thessalon 


2,000,000 


« ' 


Total 




100,000,000 


:^ 











Nursery Stock Production Target by Species 

Species Number of Trees 

White Pine 9,771 ,000 

Red Pine 16,208,000 

Jack Pine 13,478,000 

Scotch Pine 2,060,000 

White Spruce 34,846,000 

Black Spruce 18,717,000 

Other Species 4,920,000 

Total 100,000,000 



NURSERY STOCK CONTROL 

The control and distribution of nursery stock, available for 
distribution as provided by Section 7 of The Forestry Act 
and for use of Ontario, resulted in the distribution of 
52,157,150 trees during the year. 




School children planting trees at Tuscarora Indian Reserve. 



98 



Distribution ot Nursery Stock, 7960-9 



Year 



Planted on 
Private Land 



Use of 
Ontario 



Other 



Total 
Trees 



1960 13,809,125 27,562,247 

1961 13,708,050 35,630,393 

1962 11,505,775 31,666,580 

1963 9,597,300 33,958,451 

1964 9,016,400 34,752,240 

1965 10,791 ,980 38,551 ,572 

1966 11,312,900 34,481,899 

1967 9,542,325 41,839,242 

1968 10,219,517 44,248,398 

1969 11,956,165 40,183,862 



310,753 
494,969 

22,508 
212,165 
154,045 
140,516 
;, 225,055 
330,894 
337,255 

17,123 



41,682,125 
49,833,412 
43,194,863 
43,767,916 
43,922,685 
49,484,068 
49,019,854 
51,712,461 
54,805,170 
52,157,150 



Distribution of Nursery Stock, 1968-9 



Species 



Planted on 
Private Land 



Use of 
Ontario 



Educational 
or Scientific 



Total 
Trees 



White Pine 1 ,479,275 5,002,730 

Red Pine 4,074,925 2,915,013 

Jack Pine 216,950 6,719,320 

Scotch Pine 1,252,655 83,801 

White Spruce 2,733,260 17,400,447 

Black Spruce 151,050 7,181,963 

Norway Spruce 542,160 90,454 

Red Spruce 2,000 205,725 

White Cedar 547,490 15,055 

Red Cedar 450 273 

European Larch 82,625 8,229 

Tamarack 51 ,475 53,91 5 

White Ash 81,318 35,696 

Silver Maple 149,996 46,140 

Red Oak 86,948 5,222 

Carolina Poplar 336,053 70,065 

Black Locust 94,175 11,500 

Black Walnut 63,650 1,739 

Others 9,710 336.575 

Total 11,956,165 40,183,862 



4,075 

7,625 

100 

200 

3,417 

1,250 



25 
25 
75 
250 
25 
25 
25 
6 



6,486,080 

6,997,563 

6,936,370 

1,336,656 

20,137,124 

7,333,013 

633,864 

207,725 

562,545 

723 

90,879 

105,415 

117,089 

196,386 

92,195 

406,143 

105,700 

65,395 

346,285 



17,123 



52,157,150 



Trees furnished for Private Lands, 7968-9 



Trees furnished for Private Lands, 1968-9 (continued) 



County or 
Territorial District 


Tree 
Orders 


Trees 


County or 
Territorial District 


Tree 
Orders 


Trees 


Algoma 


59 

69 


152,250 

96,650 

204,250 

304,475 

12,200 


Dufferin 


108 


431,675 


Brant 


Dundas 

Durham 


28 

108 


75,600 


Bruce 


90 


466 700 


Carleton 


115 


Elgin 

Essex 


68 

47 


138 725 


Cochrane 


5 


47,350 
continued . . . 







99 



Trees furnished for Private Larids, 7968-9 (continued) 



County or 
Territorial District 



Frontenac 

Glengarry 

Grenville 

Grey 

Haldimand 

Haliburton 

Halton 

Hastings 

Huron 

Kenora 

Kent 

Lambton , 

Lanark 

Leeds 

Lennox & Addington 

Lincoln 

Manitoulin 

Middlesex 

Muskoka 

Nipissing 

Norfolk 

Northumberland 

Ontario 

Oxford 

Parry Sound 

Peel 

Perth 

Peterborough 

Prescott 

Prince Edward 

Rainy River 

Renfrew 

Russell 

Simcoe 

Stormont 

Sudbury 

Thunder Bay 

Timiskaming 

Victoria 

Waterloo 

Welland 

Wellington 

Wentworth 

York 

Total 4,051 11,956,165 



Tree 




Orders 


Trees 


91 


140,675 


49 


200,825 


68 


322,725 


113 


414,450 


34 


56,200 


22 


16,050 


118 


363,975 


65 


308,450 


38 


25,650 


18 


57,575 


27 


19,050 


47 


59,280 


59 


274,450 


50 


178,450 


43 


68,425 


56 


54,875 


3 


3,275 


150 


205,946 


70 


157,550 


18 


40,975 


181 


211,550 


71 


317,325 


161 


256,425 


65 


139,850 


68 


179,875 


142 


425,274 


46 


77,150 


86 


324,993 


16 


397,925 


28 


20,950 


26 


71,938 


145 


1,391,825 


25 


216,375 


224 


880,110 


20 


100,375 


39 


110,800 


103 


200,325 


10 


10,550 


58 


47,789 


93 


256,775 


110 


170,175 


119 


607,750 


132 


318,500 


247 


322,835 



Trees Furnished, 7968-9 



District 



Chapleau 

Cochrane 

Fort Frances . . . 

Ceraldton 

Kapuskasing . . . 
Kemptville . . . . 

Kenora 

Lake Erie 

Lake Huron . . . 
Lake Simcoe . . 

Lindsay 

North Bay 

Parry Sound . . . 
Pembroke .... 
Port Arthur . . . 
Sault Ste. Marie 
Sioux Lookout . 

Sudbury 

Swastika 

Tweed 

White River . . . 
LJnclassified . . . 

Total 



Nursery stock purchased from Kimberly 
Clark Pulp and Paper Company Limited 
under Regeneration Agreements with the 
Province of Ontario 



For Private Land *For Use of Ontario 


Trees 


Trees 


_ 


2,672,000 


12,200 


2,543,000 


71,938 


1,500,800 


— 


5,008,400 


— 


3,969,300 


2,071,200 


1,661,388 


57,575 


2,063,820 


963,151 


145,745 


2,505,000 


495,214 


2,316,319 


428,541 


1,172,857 


306,390 


— 


1,636,000 


337,425 


739,397 


1,432,800 


1,576,280 


200,325 


2,518,035 


152,250 


2,722,400 


— 


2,806,200 


114,075 


2,386,975 


10,550 


3,918,614 


538,500 


872,510 


— 


815,000 


— 


117,853 


11,956,165 


40,183,862 



2,271,165 



Grand Total 



11,956,165 



42,455,027 



*lndudes nursery stocl< furnished to all provincial government 
departments for planting on land owned or managed by the 
government. 

SEED COLLECTION 

The inventory of forest tree seed in storage at the Ontario 
Tree Seed Plant at Angus, as of June 1, 1968, was about 
2,900,000,000 viable seeds of 47 species, weighing 470,000 
ounces or nearly 15 tons, and valued at approximately 
$485,000.00. The 1968 crop year was a very poor one for 
most species. More than half of the quantity collected was 
black walnuts. 



100 



1968 Seed Crop 

Bushels 
Species Collected 

Red Pine 808 

Jack Pine 2,516 

Black Spruce 262 

Black Walnut 4,378 

Other Species 276 

Total 8,240 

TREE IMPROVEMENT 

Through application of the scientific principles of forest 
genetics we are improving the quality and increasing the 
quantity of available seed. Our approaches include the 
selection of additional "plus trees", the development of 
seed production areas, and the planting of grafted trees m 
seed orchards. The program is concerned mainly with white 
pine, red pine, jack pine, white spruce, black spruce and 
red spruce. 

During the year, we collected 7,500 scions from "plus 
trees"; these were grafted at our four co-operating nurseries. 
A total of 21.0 acres of seed production area was thinned, 
released or improved in other ways for seed production 
purposes. Planting of 2,600 grafted trees was completed on 
20.0 acres of seed orchard. 

Another phase of our program was the grafting of 1,000 
scions from white pine trees which have shown resistance 
to blister rust disease. 
As of March 31, 1969 Number Acres 

Seed Production Areas 26 287.2 

Seed Orchards 12 104.8 

NURSERY SOIL MANAGEMENT 

Our objective is to maintain the balance of soil nutrients to 
produce top-quality seedlings. During the year, 448 soil 
samples and 438 plant samples (consisting of 11,695 seed- 
lings) were analyzed for chemical composition and physio- 
logical properties. The analysis data is used to evaluate soil 
and plant conditions and in the preparation of the soil 
amendment program needed to produce high quality stock. 

Herbicides and soil fumigants are being tested constantly. 
When a new technique proves effective in nursery practice, 
it is used to reduce disease, control weeds, and increase 
seed germination and seedling growth. 

Disease and nutrient studies are also being carried out on 
a co-operative basis with staff of Research Branch and the 
Canada Department of Forestry and Fisheries. 



AGREEMENT FORESTS 

Section 2 of The Forestry Act authorizes the Minister to 
enter into agreements with the owners of lands suitable for 
forestry purposes for the management of such lands, and 
to make grants to any conservation authority or to any 
municipality to encourage and assist it in the acquisition of 
lands that are to be managed under such an agreement. 

A total of $136,068.92 in grants to assist with the acquisi- 
tion of 6,730.90 acres of land was paid during the year. 
Canada will contribute $40,102.56 of the foregoing amount 
to Ontario under agreement made between Canada and 
Ontario. 

TREES CONSERVATION 

Under authority of The Trees Act, and with the approval of 
the Minister of Lands and Forests, counties or municipalities 
in territorial districts may pass by-laws with respect to 
private lands to restrict and regulate the destruction of trees 
by cutting, burning or other means. Such by-laws have been 
passed by the following municipalities to permit the cutting 
of designated species to specified minimum diameter limits. 

Counties: Brant, Bruce, Dufferin, Elgin, Grey, Haldimand, 
Halton, Hastings, Huron, Lambton, Leeds & Grenville, Lin- 
coln, Middlesex, Norfolk, Northumberland & Durham, 
Oxford, Peel, Perth, Renfrew, Waterloo, Welland, Welling- 
ton, and Wentworth. 

Townships: Brunei and Hudson. 



PRIVATE LAND FORESTRY 

The intent of the private land forestry policy is to improve 
the management of privately owned forest land. Ultimately, 
the benefits of this improvement will be an increased flow 
of better-quality logs and other products for wood-using 
industries and greater returns to woodland owners. The pri- 
vate land forestry program provides a free advisory service 
to landowners on planning and establishing plantations and 
tending and marketing forest crops. 

In addition, under The Woodlands Improvement Act, 
1966, landowners may enter into agreement with the 
Minister for improvement of their lands through tree plant- 
ing and rehabilitation of existing woodlands. Department 
staff plant trees and carry out stand improvement in accor- 
dance with mutually agreed upon plans at no cost to the 
owner. The owner pays for the nursery stock and agrees to 
protect his woodland. 



101 



AGREEMENT UNDER SECTION 2 OF THE FORESTRY ACT, AS OF MARCH 31, 1969 (continued) 



Agreement with 



Government of Canada: 
National Capital Commission .... 

Conservation Authorities: 

Ausable River 

Big Creek Region 

Catfish Creek 

Central Lake Ontario 

Crowe Valley 

Ganaraska Region 

Grand River 

Hamilton Region 

Lakehead Region 

Lower Thames Valley 

Maitland Valley 

Metropolitan Toronto and Region 

Moira River 

Napanee Valley 

Niagara Peninsula 

North Grey Region 

Otonabee Region 

Otter Creek 

Sauble Valley 

Saugeen Valley 

South Nation River 

Sydenham Valley 

Upper Thames River 

Counties: 

Brant 

Bruce 

Carleton 

Dufferin 

Grey 

Halton 

Huron 

Kent 

Lanark 

Leeds & Grenville 

Lennox & Addington 

Middlesex 

Northumberland & Durham . . . . 

Ontario 

Oxford 

Prescott and Russell 

Renfrew 



Date ot 


Ag 


eement 


Aug. 


16,1961 


Dec. 


13,1951 


Dec. 


2 


1954 


Dec. 


19 


1962 


Sept. 


24 


1963 


Aug. 


21 


1963 


Jan. 


31 


1947 


Mar. 


18 


1952 


Oct. 


19 


1962 


May 


15 


1958 


Aug. 


12 


1964 


Apr. 


1 


1955 


Apr. 


11 


1951 


Nov. 


28 


1951 


Oct. 


28 


1954 


June 


6 


1963 


June 


25 


1958 


May 


15 


1963 


Apr. 


26 


1957 


Sept. 


29 


1959 


Dec. 


15 


1952 


Mar. 


28 


1960 


)uly 


13 


1965 


Apr. 


11 


1951 


Nov. 


15,1952 


Jan. 


20,1950 


July 


30,1964 


Nov. 


26,1930 


Dec. 


21,1937 


Mar. 


14,1950 


Nov. 


27,1950 


Dec. 


23,1953 


)uly 


5,1940 


Apr. 


24, 1940 


Apr. 


3,1952 


Mar. 


8,1954 


June 


10,1924 


July 


9,1930 


Sept 


1,1950 


Mar. 


15,1937 


Dec. 


26 


,1951 



Number of Acres Total 

Added during year Acres 



66.50 



100.00 



545.00 



100.00 
100.00 

810.00 
250.00 
450.00 



1,345.00 

458.40 
100.00 
120.00 

225.00 
922.00 



3,632.00 



4,299.00 

3,766.40 

501.00 

195.00 

200.00 

8,548.60 

5,866.37 

12.50 

1,256.70 

300.00 

949.00 

1,928.00 

16,497.00 

6,666.00 

186.00 

7,255.00 

1,545.00 

1,532.00 

3,816.00 

13,258.00 

1,638.50 

150.00 

3,444.36 



50.00 

15,533.35 

680.00 

2,405.00 

8,378.08 

1,498.63 

1,439.00 

75.39 

3,635.00 

10,217.00 

1,186.00 

1,793.90 

5,819.00 

3,941.00 

716.56 

24,750.06 

12,029.00 

continued . . . 



102 



AGREEMENT UNDER SECTION 2 OF THE FORESTRY ACT, AS OF MARCH 31, 1969 (continued) 



Agreement with 



Date of Number of Acres Total 

Agreement Added during year Acres 



Counties: (continued) 

Simcoe 

Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry 

Victoria 

Waterloo 

Wellington 

Wentworth 

York 

Townships: 

Bonfield 

Charlottenburgh 

Cramahe 

Cumberland 

Darlington 

Calvvay and Cavendish 

Machar 

Marlborough 

Mosa 

Torbolton 

Williamsburg 

Summary 
1 Government of Canada . . . 

23 Conservation Authorities . . 

24 Counties 

11 Townships 

59 Total 



June 19,1925 
Sept. 20,1949 
Aug. 10,1928 
Apr. 17,1950 
June 18,1964 
Nov. 27,1952 
Mar. 27,1924 



Apr. 
Apr. 
Jan. 



May 29, 
Aug. 19, 
Nov. 1, 
Dec. 30, 
Nov. 21, 
July 16, 
Mar. 28, 
Oct. 19, 



1952 
1955 
1964 
1952 
1964 
1952 
1963 
1953 
1964 
1953 
1962 



452.00 


21,145.74 


200.00 


2,248.45 


— 


8,319.00 





710.48 


— 


1,100.00 


— 


989.30 


487.00 


4,725.08 




60.00 


— 


175.00 


— 


162.00 


— 


808.44 


— 


140.00 


— 


619.00 


— 


90.00 


— 


200.00 


— 


144.00 





430.80 


— 


400.00 




3,632.00 


2,421.50 


83,810.43 


4,309.40 


133,385.02 


— 


3,229.24 



6,730.90 



224,056.69 



Under Regulations of the Act, 33 private forest manage- 
ment areas were designated covering all of southern On- 
tario. Eligibility for assistance was extended to more man- 
agement areas each year; as of January 1, 1969, assistance 
became available throughout all of southern Ontario. Man- 
agement plans for 23 of these designated areas have been 
prepared. The total number of agreements in effect as of 
March 31, 1969, was 1,015, comprising a total area of 66,914 
acres. 

EXTENSION FORESTRY ACTIVITIES 

1. Conducted tours for school groups and others at St. 
Williams, Orono, Midhurst and Kemptville Forest Tree 
Nurseries and the Ontario Tree Seed Plant at Angus. Ap- 
proximately 7,000 school children participated therein. 

2. Co-operated in preparing and manning exhibits at the 



Toronto C.N.E., the Ottawa C.C.E.A., the London Fair, the 
Royal Winter Fair, and the International Ploughing Match. 
Districts prepared and manned over 50 exhibits at local 
fairs and exhibitions. 

3. Co-operated with the Ontario Department of Agricul- 
ture and Food in providing guidance to the Ontario Maple 
Syrup Producers' Association and support for the Ontario 
Christmas Tree Growers' Association Incorporated. 

4. Co-operated in the revision of publications required to 
interest and instruct landowners in essentials of private land 
forestry. 

5. Provided instruction in forestry and conservation to 
sixty farm boys and girls at the leadership training camp 
organized by the Ontario Department of Agriculture and 
Food. 



103 



SUMMARY OF THE FORESTRY ADVISORY AND ASSISTANCE SERVICES 
PROVIDED TO PRIVATE LANDOWNERS AND ORGANIZATIONS,1968-9 



A. Total number of inquiries received 21,945 

B. Number of field inspections made 4,493 

(a) to advise on planting 1 ,889 

(b) to advise on forest management 1,112 

(c) to advise on maple syrup and Christmas trees 147 

(d) for miscellaneous purposes e.g. insects, windbreaks 1,412 

C. Number of properties for which management programs were prepared 689 

(a) advisory service programs 237 

(b) Woodlands Improvement Act programs 452 

D. Total number of acres of private forest land for which management programs were 42,668 
prepared 

(a) acreage contained in advisory programs 6,376 

(b) acreage under Woodlands Improvement Act programs 36,292 

E. Total number of acres of forest land treated during the year under the Woodlands 13,729 
Improvement Act 

(a) reforestation 7,289 

(b) woodlands improvement 6,440 

F. Total volume of timber marked under the advisory service program 

(a) saw timber 7,930 Mfbm 

(b) pulpwood 7,853 cords 

C. Number of youth groups serviced 164 

(a) 4H Forestry clubs 23 

(b) 4H Conservation clubs 17 

(c) Resource rangers 3 

(d) other Groups — Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, etc 130 

H. Public education activities 3,350 

(a) newspapers — articles 2,011 

— paid advertisements 8 

(b) number of radio and T.V. programs arranged 28 

(c) number of field days or tours 272 

(d) number of demonstration areas established 25 

(e) direct mailings 978 

(f) number of exhibits arranged 53 

(g) miscellaneous 25 

I. Hours spent on forestry instruction 32 

(a) University of Cuelph 26 

(b) Western Ontario Agricultural School — Ridgetown 6 



104 



HUDSON BAf 



SILVICULTURE SECTION 

FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY 

Aerial photography was completed on 18,926 square miles 
in northern Ontario. In the re-inventory program, field work 
was carried out on 11,380 square miles in Sioux Lookout 
District. 

Forest stand maps and tabulated inventory data were 
completed for 7,750 square miles in Fort Frances, Kenora 
and Sioux Lookout Forest Districts. The multiplex machine 
was used to plot the contour and form lines of four Pro- 
vincial Parks covering an area of 20,300 acres. 

The photo processing unit produced 130,436 contact 
prints, 2,447 mosaics, 2,683 enlargements, 365 diapositives, 
1,351 copy negatives and 4,136 square feet of repropositives. 
Some of these were sold to outside organizations. 

The sharp increase in cash value during the past year is 
the direct result of using an automatic photo processor 
which now enables all production to be carried out by the 
Unit. 

Cross Value of Photoprocessing Production 

Cash Department 

Year Receipts Work Total 

1965-6 $50,755.68 $24,592.23 $75,347.91 

1966-7 56,754.20 31,296.58 88,050.78 

1967-8 53,270.95 30,842.42 84,113.37 

1968-9 63,451.15 51,258.79 114,709.94 



SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS 

Silvicultural Operations include the regeneration and tend- 
ing of forests on Crown and Agreement Forest lands and the 
development of new techniques related to these activities. 
Also included are special projects involving Junior Forest 
Rangers and Correctional Camps operated by the provincial 
Department of Correctional Services and the federal Depart- 
ment of Justice. 

Regeneration includes both natLJral and artificial re- 
generation. Site preparation is usually necessary; it disturbs 
both the forest floor and top soil, creating more suitable 
conditions for natural regeneration, seeding or planting. 
Site preparation also promotes better survival and growth. 

In promoting natural regeneration, site preparation 
usually involves use of heavy equipment, adjacent to seed 
sources. Harvesting systems may also be modified with the 




MAP OF 

THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

SHOWING 

AREAS COVERED BY ORIGINAL 

FOREST INVENTORY 1946-1957 

WHITE AREAS By Department of Lands and Fji 
SOLID BLACK AREAS By Private Companies 
HATCHED AREA No Inventory 




MAP OF 

THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

SHOWING AREAS ON WHICH 

FOREST RE-INVENTORY 

HAS BEEN COMPLETED 

AS OF MARCH 31, 1969. 



SUMMARY OF SILVICULTURAL 
OPERATIONS 

On Crown Land and Agreement Forests, 1968-9 



TREES PLANTED ON AGREEMENT 
FORESTS, 1968-9 





Crown 


Agreement 


Total 




Lands 


Forests 


Acreage 


1. Regeneration 








a) Natural 








— by site 








preparation . . 


16,704 


3 


16,707 


— by modified 








harvest cutting 


9,747 


338 


10,085 


— by seed tree 








system 


3,260 


— 


3,260 


b) Artificial 








Direct seeding 








— ground 


2,797 


— 


2,797 


— aerial 


6,821 


— 


6,821 


Planting 








— nursery stock . 


58,622 


3,140 


61,762 


— tubed seedlings 


18,546 


— 


18,546 


Total 


116,497 


3,481 


119,978 


2. Tending 








Hand cleaning 


13,591 


1,444 


15,035 


Herbicide spraying . 


25,236 


322 


25,558 


Thinning, 








improvement cutting 


3,534 


1,538 


5,072 


Girdling, frilling, 








poisoning 


7,085 


593 


7,678 


Marking for 








improvement cut . . 


3,762 


153 


3,915 


Pruning 


1,582 


2,434 


4,016 


Fertilization 


95 




95 


Total 


54,885 


6,484 


61,369 


Total Area Treated .... 


171,382 


9,965 


181,347 


3. Site preparation 








For seeding and 








planting 






*54,029 


Total Area 






235,376 







Ownership 



Number of Trees 



"This area is sttown separately to avoid duplication. 



Government of Canada 

National Capital Commission 416,675 

Conservation Authorities: 

Ausable 161,620 

Big Creek 26,500 

Catfish 3,000 

Ganaraska 46,025 

Grand 23,500 

Metro Region 11,200 

Moira 20,000 

Napanee 11,500 

North Grey Region 37,000 

Otonabee 30,000 

Otter Creek 19,500 

Sauble 43,000 

Saugeen 63,325 

South Nation 52,750 

Sydenham 20,000 

568,920 
Counties 

Bruce 200 

Carleton 50,000 

Halton 27,950 

Lanark 40,000 

Leeds and Crenville 670,300 

Middlesex 1,000 

Northumberland 10,000 

Ontario 37,400 

Prescott and Russell 158,000 

Renfrew 170,250 

Simcoe 322,325 

VVatedoo 9,000 

Wellington 900 

VVentvvorth 19,000 

York 5,020 

1,521,345 
Townships 

Charlottenburg 2,500 2,500 

Total 2,509,440 



106 



TREES AND ACREAGE PLANTED BY OWNERSHIP, 1968-9 



Ownership 

1. Crown 

(a) Unalienated . . 

(b) Licensed 

2. Agreement Forests 

Total 





Number of Trees 






Area in Acres 




Nursery 
Stock 


Tubed 
Seedlings 


Total 


Nursery 
Stock 


Tubed 
Seedlings 


Total 


15,662,276 

24,229,382 

2,509,440 


6,096,166 
13,094,034 


21,758,442 

37,323,416 

2,509,440 


23,809 

34,813 

3,140 


5,400 
13,146 


29,209 

47,959 

3,140 



42,401,098 19,190,200 61,591,298 



61,762 



18,546 



80,308 



retention of strips of green timber or single trees to provide 
the seed. 

Artificial regeneration involves site preparation of large 
areas for planting and seedling; planting nursery stock by 
machine or by hand; production and planting of tubed 
seedlings; and seeding, both ground and aerial. 

Tending includes treatments such as cleaning, herbicide 
spraying for release, thinning, improvement cutting, and 
pruning during the life of the forest. 

TREES PLANTED BY SPECIES, 1968-9 



Measuring growth of red oak tree following thinning opera- 
tion, Lake Huron Forest District. 









Agreement 




Crown Lands 


Forests 






Nursery 


Tubed 


Nursery 


Total 


Species 


Trees 


Seedlings 


Trees 


Trees 


White Pine 


4,523,700 


625,400 


111,475 


5,260,575 


Red Pine 


2,417,900 


3,512,110 


775,175 


6,705,185 


Jack Pine 


7,095,227 


6,671,900 


533,300 


14,300,427 


White Spruce 


17,523,505 


2,378,511 


842,125 


20,744,141 


Black Spruce 


7,673,775 


5,914,779 




13,588,554 


Other Species 


657,551 


87,500 


247,365 


992,416 


Total 


39,891,658 


19,190,200 


2,509,440 


61,591,298 



SILVICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT 

This activity concerns development and evaluation of new 
equipment and techniques that may be used to improve 
silvicultural operations. It involves field testing of equip- 
ment and techniques, which for the most part have per- 
formed satisfactorily under research conditions. Further 
studies on an operational scale are an essential step to 
determine costs and performance under field conditions. 

Current work includes development and initiation of 
aerial forest fertilization and field tests of new chemical 
herbicides and silvicides; developing procedures to evaluate 
work done in the field; and investigating new equipment 




107 



for site preparation and planting. 

junior Rangers. During the summer months, the Department 
employs 17-year-old students under the lunior Forest 
Ranger Program. Some of these students spent part of their 
time doing work for Timber Branch. A total of 12,000 man- 
days were devoted to cone collection, nursery work, tree 
planting and forest tending. Eleven thousand acres were 
treated under this project. 

Correctional Camps. The Department supplied technical 
guidance for forestry programs carried out by seven forestry 
camps operated by the provincial Department of Correc- 
tional Services and the Beaver Creek Correctional Camp 
operated by the federal Department of Justice Correctional 
Camps. 



The seven provincial camps provided 20,000 man-days of 
labour for this Department. The men cleared roads, camp 
sites, fireguards and compartment boundaries; they repaired 
fences, built bridges, collected cones and burned brush; and 
they planted trees, pruned and thinned trees, and removed 
cull trees from stands totalling 2,400 acres. 

The men from the federal camp worked 2,700 man-days 
for this Department in pruning, thinning, cull tree removal, 
and related forestry work. 



A bulldozer skids tree lengths to piling grounds, Lindsay 
Forest District. 




TIMBER SECTION 

FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING 

The development of forest areas is based on management 
plans that provide detailed information about the volume of 
annual cut, cutting methods, regeneration treatments, road 
and camp locations, and other facts essential to orderly 
management. 

Standard management plans are based on inventory data 
gathered using photo interpretation, point sampling, and 
computer compilation methods. The information is entered 
in stand ledgers, which also serve as a record of changes. 
Standard plans have been prepared following the re-inven- 
tory of Crown management units started in 1958. The essen- 
tials of this type of planning are contained in the Manual of 
Management Plan Requirements. 

The initial management plans, based on the inventory 
method used prior to 1968, are retained until replaced with 
standard plans, and form the basis for the management of a 
large proportion of the Crown management units in the 
Province. 

Management plans form a framework into which operat- 
ing plans are fitted. An operating plan shows in detail the 
stands to be cut, regenerated, and tended, and the roads to 
be built and other improvements to be made to carry out 
operations on the management units. 

1. Crown Management Units. The plans for these units are 
prepared by Department staff. There are 77 Crown manage- 
ment units comprising an area of 93,052 square miles with 
70 management plans: 

18 standard management plans in force . . . 11,755 sq. mi. 
11 plans being processed for Ministerial 

approval 7,223 sq. mi. 

41 initial management or operating plans 

in force 67,019 sq. mi. 

7 management units not under plans 7,055 sq. mi. 

2. Company Management Units. The management plans 
for Company Management Units are prepared by the 
licensees. There are 57 Company units with 93,126 square 
miles under licence to 38 Companies. The status of manage- 
ment planning for these units is as follows: 

50 approved management plans 85,792 sq. mi. 

4 plans being processed for Ministerial 

approval 2,734 sq. mi. 

3 plans being revised or prepared 4,600 sq. mi. 

3. /Agreement Forest Units. The management plans for 
these units are prepared by Department staff. There are 60 
units covering approximately 350 square miles (or 224,056 



acres) with 60 management plans. The status of manage- 
ment planning is as follows: 

14 approved plans 74,986 acres 

15 plans being processed for approval 34,186 acres 

14 plans in process of preparation 47,980 acres 

17 units on annual plans and land acquired 

since 1960 to 1962 inventory 66,904 acres 

ACCESS ROADS 

A total of 171.8 miles of new roads was constructed, and 
143.0 miles of existing roads were improved during the 
fiscal year. Road work was carried out under two categories. 

1. Logging Access Roads are primarily designed for the 
extraction of timber products. The costs of the road are 
recovered over a five-year period through an Increase in 
stumpage rates on the timber which has been made acces- 
sible. Some 26.6 miles of new roads were built, and 39.7 
miles were improved. 

2. Forest Access Roads are built for a variety of purposes 
such as timber extraction, forest improvement, forest pro- 
tection, hunting and fishing, research and other forest uses. 
Under this category, 145.2 miles of new roads were built and 
103.3 miles were improved. 

SCALING 

Scaling is carried out in the Province to determine quanti- 
ties of wood cut for billing purposes, for forest management, 
and for statistical analysis of economic conditions ,ind 
trends in the wood-using industries. Each of these purposes 
requires different standards of accuracy; so scaling methods 
must be developed to achieve the required accuracy at 
minimum cost. Changes in logging methods and changes in 
utilization standards have also changed scaling methods; 
these include tree-length scaling, sample scaling and weigh- 
ing. 

From information gathered on weight-volume relation- 
ships, it is apparent that weighing is a feasible method of 
wood measurement. Further tests are required in some 
areas, but operational weighing of hardwood pulpwood for 
billing of Crown charges will commence in the 1969-70 
fiscal year. 

Computer analysis of scaling data and preparation of 
Crown dues accounts is now effective across the province, 
allowing a monthly billing system to be initiated in 1969-70 
and to come into full use the following year. 

Scaling examinations were held at the following locations 
on the dates noted: Onatrio Forest Technical School, Dorset, 
April 10-11, 1968; North Bay, May 9-10, 1968; and Sault Ste. 



109 



Marie, September 26-27, 1968. A total of 101 new scalers 
were licensed at these courses, and 1,573 licences were 
renewed for a three-year period. 

MARKETING AND 
FOREST ECONOMICS 

Throughout the 1968-9 fiscal year, Canada's economy as a 
whole might be described as buoyant. Within this general 
context, the principal components of the forest-based in- 
dustries provide a splendid example of the effect of the 
forces of supply-demand on product prices, as shown 
below: 

Industry Selling Price Indexes* 
(1956=100) 





Veneer 


Lumber 


Pulp 


Paper 




Plywood 


Mills 


Mills 


Mills 


1%8— April 


103.0 


125.0 


102.5 


113.7 


May 


103.5 


124.7 


102.3 


113.6 


June 


103.8 


126.0 


102.6 


113.6 


July 


104.9 


125.9 


102.3 


113.2 


August 


106.2 


127.8 


102.2 


113.1 


September 


107.0 


130.6 


102.2 


113.2 


October 


105.0 


130.1 


101.8 


113.2 


November 


106.1 


134.1 


101.7 


113.2 


December 


108.9 


137.8 


101.7 


113.4 


1969— January 


112.6 


141.5 


101.4 


116.7 


February 


115.6 


150.5 


101.5 


116.9 


March 


116.5 


154.9 


101.8 


116.8 



'Source: Canadian Statistical Review. 

The causative events underlying these figures, which are 
for Canada, mostly lie outside this province. New construc- 
tion of pulp mills had added capacity at a faster rate than 
the increase in demand, forcing prices downward. The cur- 
rent surplus in newsprint (due in part to a decrease in 
newspaper advertising) has held in check a general rise in 
paper prices. On the other hand, lumber and plywood have 
been in very short supply because British Columbia exper- 
ienced unusually heavy snowfall, which prevented logging 
and hauling operations, and mills closed as their inventory 
of wood was drawn down. Since March, prices of these 
products have reverted to normal levels. 

The total volume of Crown timber cut in the province in 
1967-8 was 436 million cubic feet (up three per cent from 



the previous year). Early indications are that the 1968-9 cut 
may be somewhat less than the above figure. 

In contrast, the production of pulp chips from mill waste 
reached a total of 670,764 bone dry tons in 1968, an increase 
of almost 140 thousand tons or 26.4 per cent for the year. 
The production graph since 1960 corresponds very closely 
to a 19-per-cent compound-interest curve. 

The highlight of this Unit's activity for the year is repre- 
sented by the report entitled "The Ontario Forest Industry: 
Its direct and indirect contribution to the economy". In 
this study, which was directed by Hedlin, Menzies and 
Associates Ltd., the objective was to measure the total 
revenue to governments that could be attributed to em- 
ployment and manufacturing in the forestry sector. Much 
of the research in statistics, on which the analysis was based, 
was carried out through this Unit. 

The report shows that the Northwestern Economic Region 
has the greatest dependence on forest industries, and that 
69 per cent of all manufacturing employment in that area is 
wood oriented. A total of 78,000 man-years of employment 
is provided by Ontario forest industries; an additional 
135,000 in service and supporting industries gain employ- 
ment by virtue of timber utilization. This is a ratio of 1 :1.73 
in direct to indirect employment. 

It is estimated that $104.3 millions of the provincial 
revenue, and $184.2 millions of the federal revenue, in 1968, 
can be traced to forest-based activities, at the primary level 
of cash flow. Through respending, these amounts would 
have a multiplier effect on government revenues. 

A very large part of the information provided in this 
report has never been available previously, and it makes 
interesting statements on the relationship between indus- 
tries. For example, some 28 million tons of raw materials 
and finished commodities hauled by the transportation in- 
dustry, representing a massive 25 per cent of rail freight 
revenues, originated with the forest industry. Another im- 
portant item shown in the report is that the degree of woods 
industry manufacturing in Ontario is much greater than for 
the rest of Canada. For every 100 cubic feet of roundwood 
processed, the value added by manufacture is $107 in 
Ontario, $65 in Quebec, and $37 in British Columbia. 

In addition to this special assignment, the Unit continued 
to promote industrial expansion, carry out economic analysis 
of timber production, collect and compile statistics, and to 
license mills. Preliminary work was undertaken for a survey 
to determine the characteristics and attitudes of private land 
owners in southern Ontario particularly with respect to 
recreation, hunting and fishing, and commercial timber pro- 
duction. The survey, itself, will be carried out during the 
1969-70 fiscal year. 



110 



ONTARIO-PRODUCED PULP CHIPS, 1968 



Production 

No. of producing mills . . 
Quantity (bone-dry tons) 
Percentages of total . . . . 

Consumption 

No. of consuming mills . 
Quantity (bone-dry tons) 
Percentages of total . . . . 



Northwestern 
Region* 


Northeastern 
Region* 


Southern 
Region* 


Quebec 


U.S.A. 


13 

195,014 
29.1% 


35 

335,481 
50.0% 


27 

140,269 
20.9% 


— 


— 


4 
326,487 

48.7% 


4 

105,045 

15.7% 


3 

124,433 

18.6% 


6 

104,812 

15.6% 


4 
9,987 
1.4% 



'Department's Administrative Regions. 
Felling mature white pine 







•^- . t:^^ 



^^ 



vi^^'^l 



Xl' 



m 




SALE OF TIMBER 

SUMMARY OF VOLUME AND VALUE OF 
WOOD CUT FROM CROWN LANDS, 1967-8 

Volume Stumpage 

Species (cu. ft.) Value 

Softwoods 

Balsam 14,524,889.68 $ 297,422.79 

Cedar 567,352.06 14,251.48 

Hemlock 2,855,371.05 71,443.21 

Pine, jack 107,874,646.35 2,826,861.16 

Pine, red 7,022,006.50 432,163.01 

Pine, white 24,315,943.67 1,279,927.94 

Spruce 220,569,233.89 8,297,099.68 

Tamarack 120,150.11 2,285.00 

Christmas Trees 27,563.50 2,782.25 

Fuelwood 630,534.25 4,620.18 

Total 378,507,691.06 $13,228,856.70 

Hardwoods 

Ash 75,633.77 3,286.57 

Basswood 462,449.05 28,141.74 

Beech 351,135.52 8,359.88 

Birch, white 5,653,793.67 77,538.31 

Birch, yellow 8,370,005.23 701,005.77 

Butternut 1,744.86 91.06 

Cherry 19,772.34 875.92 

Elm 422,662.16 16,037.61 

Maple 10,004,081 .90 440,903.20 

Oak 281,472.71 14,122.47 

Poplar 27,682,396.97 272,320.75 

Hardwood 2,954,448.71 30,852.33 

Fuelwood 1,108,020.90 9,450.77 

Total 57,387,617.79 $ 1,602,986.38 

Total 435,895,308.85 $14,831,843.08 

NOTE: The value of export levy ($34,576-24) is not included in 
above. 

CROWN TIMBER SALES, 1968-9 

New Licences issued under 

section 2 C.T.A 9.7 square miles 

New Licences issued under 

section 3 C.T.A 9,568.3 square miles 

New Licences issued under 

section 5 C.T.A nil square miles 

Total 9,578.0 square miles 

Abandonments: Licensed areas in the amount of 11,827.8 
square miles were abandoned. 




Crowing timber and controlling erosion on the hills of 
Dufferin County. 



112 



AREAS UNDER CROWN TIMBER LICENCE 

Areas in square miles, March 31 



Year 



Licences 
under 

Section 2 
C.T.A. 



Licences 
under 

Section 3 
C.T.A. 



Licences 
under 

Section 5 
C.T.A. 



Total 
Area 



1965 2,565.0 103,347.5 4.9 105,917.4 

1966 2,466.7 100,362.8 1.2 102,830.7 

1967 2,006.5 104,269.9 nil 106,276.4 

1968 1,704.2 104,134.6 74.0 105,912.8 

1969 1,664.7 101,924.3 74.0 103,663.0 



LICENSING OF MILLS 

Mills licensed under The Crown Timber Act are distributed 
as shown in the following table. The trend toward fewer 
mills continues with a shift from small to larger sawmills 
dominating the change. 

Licensed Mills 1968 1967 

SAWMILLS: 

Lumber capacity over 50 M fbm 27 28 

Lumber capacity 10 to 50 M fbm 101 100 

Lumber capacity under 10 M fbm 593 644 

Miscellaneous sawn products 99 96 

VENEER MILLS 29 29 

PULP MILLS 25 25 

Total 874 922 



VOLUME OF WOOD CUT FROM AGREEMENT FORESTS 

In fiscal years ended March 31 



1969 



1968 



1967 



1966 



Pulpwood (cords) 12,791.59 

Sawlogs (cu. ft.) 162,332.29 

Poles, Posts, Piling (cu. ft.) 5,495.15 

Fuelwood (cords) 337.90 

Miscellaneous — 

Total, all Products* 1 ,283,834.09 

Equivalent cu. ft.* 



10,296.46 

97,854.79 

4,676.82 

217.30 



10,015.34 

130,447.27 

85,815.31 

1,889.63 



9,512.05 

111,837.45 

74,280.45 

730.39 



996,201.21 



1,228,215.03 



1,056,725.30 



VOLUME OF WOOD CUT FROM AGREEMENT FORESTS 

In fiscal years ended March 31 



1969 



1968 



1967 



$69,472.47 $130,227.51 



1966 



Pulpwood (cords) $52,282.78 $46,183.09 $ 64,045.26 $ 72,050.10 

Sawlogs (cu. ft.) 14,287.78 14,702.32 17,082.60 17,758.84 

Poles, Posts, Piling (cu. ft.) 1,065.66 1,762.15 33,344.66 30,381.33 

Fuelwood (cords) 1,062.25 511.12 10,119.01 3,666.17 

Miscellaneous 5,641.52 6,313.79 5,635.98 7,375.60 

Total, all Products* $74,339.99 

Equivalent cu. ft.* 



$131,232.04 



113 



SUMMARY 

SUMMARY OF VOLUME AND VALUE OF TIMBER CUT ON CROWN LAND, 1967-8 



Species 

BOARD FOOT MEASURE 

ONTARIO SCALE 

Ash 

Balsam 

Basswood 

Beech 

Birch, white 

Birch, yellow 

Butternut 

Cedar 

Cherry 

Elm 

Hemlock 

Maple 

Oak 

Pine, jack 

Pine, red 

Pine, white 

Poplar 

Spruce 

Tamarack 

Total 

TREE LENGTH MATERIAL 

Balsam 

Pine, jack 

Pine, red 

Pine, white 

Spruce 

Total 

Total Board Foot Measure 

CUBIC FOOT MEASURE 

SAWLOGS 

Ash 

Balsam 

Birch, white 

Birch, yellow 

Cedar 

Maple 



Pieces 



Cords 



Feet 



Equivalent 
in cu. ft. 



6,880 

10,622 

42,283 

30,424 

123,670 

620,116 

147 

7,176 

1,843 

29,577 

161,554 

680,015 

27,050 

219,797 

387,853 

1,218,850 

170,104 

318,768 

1,793 



377,023 

250,597 

2,467,554 

1,872,274 

5,829,678 

44,465,370 

9,335 

212,872 

105.782 

2,250,554 

11,874,831 

49,197,233 

1,502,109 

7,751,973 

26,699,917 

107,112,816 

8,362,858 

13,007,339 

92,748 



70,471.59 

46,840.56 

461,225.05 

349,957.76 

1,089,659.44 

8,311,284.11 

1,744.86 

39,789.15 

19,772.34 

420,664.30 

2,219,594.58 

9,195,744.49 

280,768.04 

1,448,966.92 

4,990,638.69 

20,021,087.10 

1,563,151.03 

2,431,278.32 

17,336.07 



4,058,522 



283,442,863 



52,979,974.40 



26,248 

451,105 

1,199 

103 

444,961 



1,340,112 


250,488.22 


21,430,911 


4,005,777.76 


99,618 


18,620.19 


16,680 


3,117.76 


16,471,815 


3,078,843.93 



923,616 



4,982,138 



39,359,136 



322,801,999 



7,356,847.86 



60,336,822.26 



62 

312,154 

221,901 

2,682 

50,390 

2,199 



419.21 


419.21 


,170,027.79 


1,170,027.79 


,135,345.96 


1,135,345.96 


321.87 


321.87 


331,550.88 


331,550.88 


263.86 


263.86 



114 



Reservoir at St. Williams Forest Statior^. 



Dues 

$ 



1,304,964.21 



148,202.94 



1,453,167.15 



Bonus 

$ 



1,539,127.40 



37,146.99 



1,576,274.39 



Stumpage 
Value 



1,883.56 


1,315.25 


3,198.81 


1,002.38 


1,762.54 


2,764.92 


12,337.93 


15,789.41 


28,127.34 


2,808.42 


5,517.98 


8,326.40 


8,744.58 


25,484.78 


34,229.36 


22,327.24 


478,137.86 


700,465.10 


14.00 


77.06 


91.06 


639.59 


902.63 


1,542.22 


529.02 


346.90 


875.92 


11,252.94 


4,753.85 


16,006.79 


35,624.53 


22,891.45 


58,515.98 


:45,986.47 


187,406.15 


433,392.62 


7,382.61 


6,720.56 


14,103.17 


31,136.07 


7,753.09 


38,889.16 


33,110.65 


127,165.16 


260,275.81 


;26,101.62 


583,700.42 


1,109,802.04 


12,544.21 


14,034.47 


26,578,68 


51,260.14 


55,317.90 


106,578.04 


278.25 


49.94 


328.19 



2,844,091.61 



5,360.45 


2,680.23 


8,040.68 


76,373.74 




76,373.74 


498.10 


457.01 


955.11 


83.40 


37.53 


120.93 


65,887.25 


33,972.22 


99,859.47 



185,349.93 



3,029,441.54 










1^ 


2.52 


2.47 


4.99 




9,304.47 


5,830.06 


25,134.53 




6,805.25 


6,737.94 


13,543.19 




1.93 




1.93 




5,470.49 


563.38 


6,033.87 




1.59 




1.59 


Display 




Display at International Plowing Match, Cuelph, 1968. 



115 



SUMMARY OF VOLUME AND VALUE OF TIMBER CUT ON CROWN LAND, 1967-8 (continued) 



Species 

SAWLOGS (continued) 

Oak 

Pine, jack 

Pine, red 

Pine, white 

Poplar 

Spruce 

Tamarack 

Total 

TREE LENGTH MATERIAL 

Balsam 

Birch, white 

Cedar 

Pine, jack 

Pine, red 

Pine, white 

Poplar 

Spruce 

Tamarack 

Total 

*LONG TIMBER 

Ash 

Balsam 

Beech 

Birch, white 

Cedar 

Elm 

Hemlock 

Maple 

Oak 

Pine, jack 

Pine, red 

Pine, white 

Poplar 

Spruce 

Tamarack 

Total 

Total Cubic Foot Measure 



Pieces 



Cords 



Feet 



Equivalent 
In cu. ft. 



07 

3,744,674 

356,155 

335,627 

823,669 

3,358,603 

152 



83.00 

20,200,194.27 

1,110,798.63 

1,867,367.63 

3,948,446.43 

16,974,039.45 

178.75 



83.00 

20,200,194.27 

1,110,798.63 

1,867,367.63 

3,948,446.43 

16,974,039.45 

178.75 



9,208,275 



46,739,037.73 



46,739,037.73 



741 ,683 

4,552 

31 

2,666,782 

148 

40 

64,577 

9,763,422 

39 



5,713,497.83 

36,938.33 

1,279.50 

29,757,109.60 

3,198.60 

1,783.66 

1,143,177.44 

64,923,365.50 

202.60 



5,713,497.83 

36,938.33 

1,279.50 

29,757,109.60 

3,198.60 

1,783.66 

1,143,177.44 

64,923,365.50 

202.60 



13,241,274 



101,580,553.06 



101,580,553.06 



02 

754 

23 

01 

1,329 

07 

2,352 

15 

03 

39,172 

41 ,482 

1,813 

31 

30,296 

153 



33.12 


33.12 


1,759.58 


1,759.58 


547.06 


547.06 


18.44 


18.44 


11,282.23 


11,282.23 


129.56 


129.56 


53,565.57 


53,565.57 


290.50 


290.50 


53.02 


53.02 


478,412.48 


478,412.48 


707,773.24 


707,773.24 


11,276.07 


11,276.07 


564.32 


564.32 


181,580.38 


181,580.38 


832.89 


832.89 



117,433 



1,448,118.46 



1,448,118.46 



22,566,982 



149,767,709.25 149,767,709.25 



*Long timber includes dimension and boom timber, poles, and piling. 



116 









Stumpage 




Dues 


Bonus 


Value 




$ 


$ 


$ 




.50 


4.48 


4.98 




474,731.40 


116,333.98 


591,065.38 




36,659.38 


38,194.52 


74,853.90 




61,623.18 


63,845.90 


125,469.08 




23,606.11 


31,402.76 


55,008.87 




560,250.19 


98,002.67 


658,252.86 




2.95 


3.70 


6.65 




1,188,459.96 


360,921.86 


1,549,381.82 




94,227.12 


16,414.25 


110,641.37 




221.63 


455.79 


677.42 




21.11 


30.07 


51.18 




699,628.53 


71,621.05 


771,249.58 




105.56 


21.76 


127.32 




58.86 


32.15 


91.01 




6,859.07 


1,426.08 


8,285.15 




2,141,325.28 


227,506.54 


2,368,831.82 




3.34 


.71 


4.05 




2,942,450.50 


317,508.40 


3,259,958.90 




1.32 




1.32 




55.66 


17.98 


73.64 




27.85 




27.85 




.74 




.74 




320.80 


167.47 


488.27 




5.86 




5.86 




2,694.03 


92.75 


2,786.78 




13.48 


6.73 


20.21 




2.34 


1.06 


3.40 




19,702.03 


8,761.48 


28,463.51 




34,512.58 


56,583.53 


91,096.11 




560.27 


303.70 


863.97 




26.03 




26.03 




7,495.89 


2,842.74 


10,338.63 




26.42 


25.66 


52.08 




65,445.30 


68,803.10 


134,248.40 




4,196,355.76 


747,233.36 


4,943,589.12 




5c/on of superior spruce tree is grafted on seedling, Ontario 
Tree Seed Plant, Angus. 



117 



SUMMARY OF VOLUME AND VALUE OF TIMBER CUT ON CROWN LAND, 1967-8 (continued) 



Species 



Pieces 



Cords 



Feet 



Equivalent 
in cu. ft. 



CORDAGE 

PULPWOOD 

Ash 

Balsam 

Basswood 

Beech 

Birch, white 

Birch, yellow 

Cedar 

Elm 

Hemlock 

Maple 

Oak 

Pine, jack 

Pine, jack (export levy) 

Pine, red 

Pine, white 

Poplar 

Poplar (export levy) . . 

Spruce 

Spruce (export levy) . . 

Tamarack 

Hardwood 

Total 

FUELWOOD 

Hardwood 

Softwood 

Total 

BOLTS 

Birch, white 

Pine, jack 

Pine, white 

Poplar 

Spruce 

Total 

Total Cordage 



55.41 

86,378.42 

14.40 

7.42 

35,901.32 

687.05 

1,348.58 

21.98 

6,849.54 

9,503.33 

6.69 

609,916.56 

(31,647.42) 

2,243.42 

28,164.79 

192,042.26 

(6,374.36) 

1,563,257.87 

(18,115.04) 

1,193.88 

3f,556.95 



4,709.85 

7,342,165.70 

1,224.00 

630.70 

3,051,612.20 

58,399.25 

114,629.30 

1,868.30 

582,210.90 

807,783.05 

568.65 

51,842,907.60 

(2,690,030.70) 

190,690.70 

2,394,007.15 

16,323,592.10 

(541,820.60) 

132,876,918.95 

(1,539,778.40) 

101,479.80 

2,682,340.75 



2,569,149,87 



218,377,738.95 



13,035.54 
7,418.05 



1,108,020.90 
630,534.25 



20,453.59 



1,738,555.15 



4,002.58 

1,580.72 

203.58 

55,334.89 

1 ,041 .87 



340,219.30 
134,361.20 

17,304.30 
4,703,465.65 

88,558.95 



62,163.64 
2,651,767.10 



5,283,909.40 
225,400,203.50 



118 



Dues 
$ 



5,922,635.68 



6,517.77 
3,709.04 



10,226.81 



2,007.37 

3,161.44 

285.01 

27,779.22 

2,919.27 



36,152.31 



5,969,014.80 



Bonus 
$ 



892,730.09 



2,933.00 
911.14 



3,844.14 



1,212.40 
159.36 

14,245.01 
360.63 



15,977.40 



912,551.63 



Stumpage 
Value 

$ 



27.71 


53.74 


81.45 


120,930.09 


29,822.56 


150,752.65 


7.20 


7.20 


14.40 


3.75 


1.88 


5.63 


17,951.15 


7,916.68 


25,867.83 


343.58 


195.16 


538.74 


1,810.55 


271.52 


2,082.07 


11.00 


13.96 


24.96 


9,583.93 


556.52 


10,140.45 


4,751.82 


2,736.96 


7,488.78 


3.35 


7.57 


10.92 


1,219,717.64 


97,606.95 


1,317,324.59 




15,823.77 


15,823.77 


3,406.35 


1,434.09 


4,840.44 


39,430.93 


3,864.97 


43,295.90 


96,025.03 


44,372.76 


140,397.79 




637.43 


637.43 


4,391,177.45 


657,982.60 


5,049,160.05 




18,115.04 


18,115.04 


1,672.56 


209.47 


1,882.03 


15,781.59 


11,099.26 


26,880.85 



6,815,365.77 



9,450.77 
4,620.18 



14,070.95 



3,219.77 

3,320.80 

285.01 

42,024.23 

3,279.90 



52,129.71 



6,881,566.43 




Simcuc LouiUy I oitiii. 



119 



SUMMARY OF VOLUME AND VALUE OF TIMBER CUT ON CROWN LAND, 1967-8 (continued) 

Equivalent 

Species Pieces Cords Feet in cu. ft. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

POSTS-LIN. FT. 

Balsam 80 550 110.00 

Cedar 43,879 344,105 68,821.00 

Spruce 24 240 48.00 

Tamarack 100 600 120.00 

MINING TIMBER-cu. FT. 

Pine, jack 677 6,916.52 6,916.52 

Pine, red 23 286.45 286.45 

Spruce 8,447 14,600.41 14,600.41 

Hardwood 617 3,101.66 3,101.66 

POKER POLES-CORDS 

Hardwood 3,164.78 269,006.30 

Christmas Trees 55,127 27,563.50 

Total Miscellaneous 108,974 3,164.78 390,573.84 

Total Board Foot Measure 4,982,138 322,801,999 60,336,822.26 

Total Cubic Foot Measure 22,566,982 149,767,709.25 149,767,709.25 

Total Cordage 2,651,767.10 225,400,203.50 

GRAND TOTAL 27,658,094 2,654,931.88 435,895,308.85 

Number of Districts Cutting Licences issued and included in above: 2,695 Conversion Factors: 1 cubic foot = 5.35 board feet 

1 cord = 85 cubic feet. 



120 



Dues 
$ 



Bonus 



Stumpage 

Value 

$ 



5.50 


9.50 


15.00 


3,441.05 


612.82 


4,053.87 


2.40 


2.60 


5.00 


6.00 


6.00 


12.00 


162.73 


11.67 


174.40 


4.72 


9.60 


14.32 


454.50 


339.41 


793.91 


18.35 


23.84 


42.19 


1,582.40 


2,346.89 


3,929.29 


2,779.20 


3.05 


2,782.25 


8,456.85 


3,365.38 


11,822.23 


1,453,167.15 


1,576,274.39 


3,029,441.54 


4,196,355.76 


747,233.36 


4,943,589.12 


5,969,014.80 


912,551.63 


6,881,566.43 


11,626,994.56 


3,239,424.76 


14,866,419.32 


$1,001,360.38 




Scaling logi, bdull Sic. Mane f o/l.- 



121 




BiLiiu:...: .;;^L 

Premier John Robarts planted a sugar maple sapling in a 
ceremony at Queen's Park on November 14, 1968. He was 
assisted by jim Drury (Left), 76, representing his grandfather, 
the late Hon. E. C. Drury, Premier of Ontario, 1919-23, and 
by Ross Zavitz (right of tree), representing his father, the 



late Dr. E. j. Zavitz, widely acclaimed as the father of re- 
forestation in Ontario. Hon. Rene Brunelle (Right), Minister 
of Lands and Forests, presided over the ceremony which 
marked the production and shipment of one billion forest 
trees by provmcial nurseries. 



122 



TIMBER SALES 

FROM APRIL 1, 1968, TO MARCH 31, 1969 



Date 
Sold 
1968 



Locality 



Area No. of 
Sq. M. Tenders 



To whom sold 



Kind of Timber 



Bid 
$ 



Bonus Dues 
$ $ 



Total 



May 9 Evelyn 

Township 

May 30 Mayo 

Township 



0.1 



0.2 



7 Alexander M. Ryan lack pine pulpwood 4.15 1.35 2.00 7.50 per cord 



Jan Lumber Company 
L'Amable, Ontario 



June 5 Mayo 

Township 



0.2 



Clair Lalone 
R.R. #1 
Detlor, Ontario 



June 10 McClure 
Township 



0.3 



G.W.Martin 
Lumber Limited 
Harcourt, Ontario 



White pine saw-logs 3.30 10.00 5.00 18.30 per MBM 

Red pine saw-logs 3.30 10.00 5.00 18.30 per MBM 

Spruce saw-logs 2.30 12.00 4.00 18.30 per MBM 

Balsam saw-logs 4.00 6.00 4.00 14.00 per MBM 

Cedar saw-logs 2.00 5.00 3.00 10.00 per MBM 

Hemlock saw-logs 4.00 5.00 3.00 12.00 per MBM 

Yellow birch saw-logs 2.00 11.00 5.00 18.00 per MBM 

White birch saw-logs 10.00 6.50 1.50 18.00 per MBM 

Poplar saw-logs 2.00 4.50 1.50 8.00 per MBM 

Maple saw-logs 5.00 8.00 5.00 18.00 per MBM 

Basswood saw-logs 2.00 11.00 5.00 18.00 per MBM 

Oak saw-logs 4.00 7.00 5.00 16.00 per MBM 

Ash saw-logs 2.00 5.00 5.00 12.00 per MBM 

Elm saw-logs 2.00 5.00 5.00 12.00 per MBM 

Beech saw-logs 5.00 5.50 1.50 12.00 per MBM 

Hardwood pulpwood — 0.25 0.50 0.75 per cord 

White pine saw-logs 5.00 10.00 5.00 20.00 per MBM 

Red pine saw-logs 5.00 10.00 5.00 20.00 per MBM 

Spruce saw-logs 5.00 12.00 4.00 21.00 per MBM 

Balsam saw-logs 5.00 6.00 4.00 15.00 per MBM 

Cedar saw-logs 5.00 5.00 3.00 13.00 per MBM 

Hemlock saw-logs 5.00 5.00 3.00 13.00 per MBM 

Yellow birch saw-logs 5.00 11.00 5.00 21.00 per MBM 

White birch saw-logs 7.00 6.50 1.50 15.00 per MBM 

Poplar saw-logs 4.00 4.50 1.50 10.00 per MBM 

Maple saw-logs 5.00 8.00 5.00 18.00 per MBM 

Basswood saw-logs 4.00 11.00 5.00 20.00 per MBM 

Oak saw-logs 5.00 7.00 5.00 17.00 per MBM 

Ash saw-logs 5.00 5.00 5.00 15.00 per MBM 

Beech saw-logs 5.00 4.50 1.50 11.00 per MBM 

Hardwood pulpwood — 0.25 0.50 0.75 per cord 

White pine saw-logs 3.00 10.00 5.00 18.00 per MBM 

Spruce saw-logs 3.00 12.00 4.00 19.00 per MBM 

Hemlock saw-logs 2.00 5.00 3.00 10.00 per MBM 

Yellow birch saw-logs 12.00 11.00 5.00 28.00 per MBM 

White birch saw-logs 12.00 6.50 1.50 20.00 per MBM 

Poplar saw-logs 1.00 4.50 1.50 7.00 per MBM 

Maple saw-logs 3.00 8.00 5.00 16.00 per MBM 

Basswood saw-logs 3.00 11.00 5.00 19.00 per MBM 

continued . . . 



123 



TIMBER SALES (continued) 

FROM APRIL 1, 1968, TO MARCH 31, 1969 



Date 


















Sold 




Area 


No. of 




B(d 


Bonus 


Dues 


Total 


1968 


Locality 


Sq. M. 


Tenders To whom sold 


Kind of Timber 


S 


$ 


$ 


$ 










Ash saw-logs 


2.00 


5.00 


5.00 


12.00 per MBM 










Elm saw-logs 


1.00 


5.00 


5.00 


11.00 per MBM 










Beech saw-logs 


1.00 


4.50 


1.50 


7.00 per MBM 










Balsam pulpwood 


0.70 


0.60 


1.40 


2.70 per cord 










Hardwood pulpwood 


0.20 


0.25 


0.50 


0.95 per cord 


June 17 


Cashel 


0.3 


2 VVesont Lumber 


Spruce saw-logs 


4.10 


12.00 


4.00 


20.10 per MBM 




Township 




Company Limited 


Balsam saw-logs 


6.00 


6.00 


4.00 


16.00 per MBM 








P.O. Box 89 


Cedar saw-logs 


2.00 


5.00 


3.00 


10.00 per MBM 








Clifford, Ontario 


Hemlock saw-logs 


2.00 


5.00 


3.00 


10.00 per MBM 










Yellow birch saw-logs 


12.60 


11.00 


5.00 


28.60 per MBM 










White birch saw-logs 


10.10 


6.50 


1.50 


18.10 per MBM 










Poplar saw-logs 


— 


4.50 


1.50 


6.00 per MBM 










Maple saw-logs 


13.50 


8.00 


5.00 


26.50 per MBM 










Basswood saw-logs 


10.00 


11.00 


5.00 


26.00 per MBM 










Oak saw-logs 


8.00 


7.00 


5.00 


20.00 per MBM 










Ash saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


5.00 


10.00 per MBM 










Elm saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


5.00 


10.00 per MBM 










Beech saw-logs 


2.00 


4.50 


1.50 


8.00 per MBM 










Hardwood pulpwood 


— 


0.25 


0.50 


0.75 per cord 


June 17 


Bridgland 


0.1 


3 Jack Hermiston 


Spruce saw-logs 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


12.00 per MBM 




Township 




R.R. #3 


Hemlock saw-logs 


3.00 


2.00 


3.00 


8.00 per MBM 








Iron Bridge, Ontario 


Yellow birch saw-logs 


46.00 


15.00 


5.00 


66.00 per MBM 










White birch saw-logs 


41.00 


12.50 


1.50 


55.00 per MBM 










Maple saw-logs 


8.00 


5.00 


5.00 


18.00 per MBM 


June 28 


Mulock 


0.3 


2 Ross Lake Lumber 


Spruce saw-logs 


— 


8.00 


4.00 


12.00 per MBM 




Township 




Limited 


Hemlock saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


3.00 


8.00 per MBM 








604 Oakwood Ave. 


Yellow birch saw-logs 


15.00 


15.00 


5.00 


35.00 per MBM 








North Bay, Ontario 


Maple saw-logs 


6.00 


7.00 


5.00 


18.00 per MBM 










Oak saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


5.00 


10.00 per MBM 










Ash saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


5.00 


10.00 per MBM 










Elm saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


5.00 


10.00 per MBM 










Cherry saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


5.00 


10.00 per MBM 










Spruce pulpwood 


— 


0.70 


2.80 


3.50 per cord 










Balsam pulpwood 


— 


1.10 


1.40 


2.50 per cord 










Hemlock pulpwood 


— 


0.10 


1.40 


1.50 per cord 










Yellow birch pulpwood 1.00 


0.50 


0.50 


2.00 per cord 










Maple pulpwood 


1.00 


0.50 


0.50 


2.00 per cord 










Oak pulpwood 


— 


0.50 


0.50 


1.00 per cord 










Ash pulpwood 


— 


0.50 


0.50 


1 .00 per cord 










Elm pulpwood 


— 


0.50 


0.50 


1.00 per cord 










Cherry pulpwood 




0.50 


0.50 


1.00 per cord 
continued . . 



124 



TIMBER SALES (continued) 

FROM APRIL 1, 1968, TO MARCH 31, 1969 



Date 






















Sold 




Area 


No. of 






Bid 


Bonus 


Dues 




Total 


1968 


Locality 


Sq. M. 


Tenders To whom sold 


Kind of Timber 


$ 


$ 


$ 
4.00 




$ 


July 9 


Ashby 


0.2 


1 


George Stein 


Spruce saw-logs 


4.00 


12.00 


20.00 


perMBM 




Township 






Schutt, Ontario 


Balsam saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


4.00 


9.00 


perMBM 












Cedar saw-logs 


— 


6.00 


3.00 


9.00 


perMBM 












Hemlock saw-logs 


1.00 


6.00 


3.00 


10.00 


perMBM 












Yellow birch saw-logs 


5.00 


11.00 


5.00 


21.00 


perMBM 












White birch saw-logs 


— 


5.50 


1.50 


7.00 


perMBM 












Poplar saw-logs 


— 


4.50 


1.50 


6.00 


perMBM 












Maple saw-logs 


5.00 


9.00 


5.00 


19.00 


perMBM 












Basswood saw-logs 


4.00 


11.00 


5.00 


20.00 


perMBM 












Oak saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


5.00 


10.00 


perMBM 












Ash saw-logs 


— 


4.00 


5.00 


9.00 


perMBM 












Beech saw-logs 


— 


6.50 


1.50 


8.00 


perMBM 


July 12 


Foster and 


0.7 


2 


L. Vincent Burns 


White pine saw-logs 


0.03 


0.027 


0.033 


0.09 


percu. ft. 




Curtin 






Box 222 


Red pine saw-logs 


0.02 


0.047 


0.033 


0.10 


per cu. ft. 




Townships 






Massey, Ontario 


Spruce saw-logs 


0.02 


0.047 


0.033 


0.10 


percu. ft. 












Spruce pulpwood 


0.70 


0.50 


2.80 


4.00 


per cord 












Balsam pulpwood 


1.00 


1.60 


1.40 


4.00 


per cord 












White pine pulpwood 


1.00 


1.60 


1.40 


4.00 


per cord 












Red pine pulpwood 


1.00 


1.60 


1.40 


4.00 


per cord 












White birch pulpwood 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


1.50 


per cord 












Poplar pulpwood 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


1.50 


per cord 


Sept. 6 


McCowan 


1.2 


8 


Alfred Isabelle 


Spruce pulpwood 


2.87 


0.85 


2.80 


6.52 


per cord 




Township 






Box 119 
Opasatika, Ontario 


Poplar of veneer 
quality 


1.77 


1.25 


0.50 


3.52 


per cord 


Sept. 12 


Nansen 


2.0 


1 


Rosaire Bouchard 


Spruce pulpwood 


0.01 


0.60 


2.80 


3.41 


per cord 




Township 






R.R. #1 
Moonbeam, Ontario 


Balsam pulpwood 


0.01 


2.00 


1.40 


3.41 


per cord 


Nov. 8 


Mulock 


0.2 


2 


Earl Winch 


Spruce saw-logs 


2.00 


8.00 


4.00 


14.00 


perMBM 




Township 






R.R. #1 


Hemlock saw-logs 


0.10 


5.00 


3.00 


8.10 


perMBM 










Redbridge, Ontario 


Yellow birch saw-logs 


15.00 


15.00 


5.00 


35.00 


perMBM 












Maple saw-logs 


5.00 


7.00 


5.00 


17.00 


perMBM 












Oak saw-logs 


5.00 


5.00 


5.00 


15.00 


perMBM 












Ash saw-logs 


2.00 


5.00 


5.00 


12.00 


perMBM 












Elm saw-logs 


5.00 


5.00 


5.00 


15.00 


perMBM 












Cherry saw-logs 


5.00 


5.00 


5.00 


15.00 


perMBM 












Spruce pulpwood 


0.10 


0.70 


2.80 


3.60 


per cord 












Balsam pulpwood 


0.05 


0.10 


1.40 


2.55 


per cord 












Hemlock pulpwood 


0.05 


0.10 


1.40 


1.55 


per cord 












Yellow birch pulpwood 


0.05 


0.50 


0.50 


1.05 


per cord 




















continued . . . 



125 



TIMBER SALES (contmued) 

FROM APRIL 1, 1968, TO MARCH 31, 1969 



Date 






















Sold 




Area 


No. of 




Bid 


Bonus 


Dues 




Total 


1968 


Locality 


Sq. M. 


Tenders To whom sold 


Kind of Timber 


$ 


$ 


$ 




$ 












Maple pulpwood 


0.05 


0.50 


0.50 


1.05 


per 


cord 










Oak pulpwood 


0.05 


0.50 


0.50 


1.05 


per 


cord 










Ash pulpwood 


0.05 


0.50 


0.50 


1.05 


per 


cord 










Elm pulpwood 


0.05 


0.50 


0.50 


1.05 


per 


cord 










Cherry pulpwood 


0.05 


0.50 


0.50 


1.05 


per 


cord 


Nov. 22 


Freeman 


0.9 


3 Bert Taylor 


White pine saw-logs 


1.79 


9.96 


5.00 


16.75 


per 


MBM 




Township 




Construction Ltd. 


Spruce saw-logs 


1.50 


6.00 


4.00 


11.50 


per 


MBM 








P.O. Box 103 


Cedar saw-logs 


1.23 


1.77 


3.00 


6.00 


per 


MBM 








Parry Sound, Ontario 


Hemlock saw-logs 


1.01 


1.99 


3.00 


6.00 


per 


MBM 










Yellow birch saw-logs 


21.18 


22.32 


5.00 


48.50 


per 


MBM 










White birch saw-logs 


5.20 


1.30 


1.50 


8.00 


per 


MBM 










Maple saw-logs 


13.79 


7.71 


5.00 


26.50 


per 


MBM 










Oak saw-logs 


4.84 


3.16 


5.00 


13.00 


per 


MBM 










Ash saw-logs 


1.89 


3.11 


5.00 


10.00 


pe 


MBM 










Elm saw-logs 


2.19 


2.81 


5.00 


10.00 


pe 


MBM 










Cherry saw-logs 


4.00 


1.00 


5.00 


10.00 


pe 


MBM 










Beech saw-logs 


4.49 


0.01 


1.50 


6.00 


per 


MBM 


Dec. 9 


Ashby 


0.1 


2 George Stein 


White pine saw-logs 


5,00 


10.00 


5.00 


20.00 


per 


MBM 




Township 




Schutt, Ontario 


Balsam saw-logs 


5.00 


6.00 


4.00 


15.00 


pe 


MBM 










Hemlock saw-logs 


5.00 


5.00 


3.00 


13,00 


pe 


MBM 










Yellow birch saw-logs 


9.00 


11.00 


5.00 


25.00 


pe 


MBM 










White birch saw-logs 


4.00 


6.50 


1.50 


12,00 


pe 


MBM 










Maple saw-logs 


9.00 


8.00 


5.00 


22,00 


pe 


■MBM 










Basswood saw-logs 


4.00 


11.00 


5.00 


20,00 


pe 


MBM 










Oak saw-logs 


5.00 


7.00 


5.00 


17,00 


pe 


MBM 










Beech saw-logs 


4.00 


4.50 


1.50 


10,00 


pe 


MBM 










Hardwood pulpwood 


— 


0.25 


0.50 


0,75 


pe 


-cord 


Dec. 23 


Ashby 


0.1 


4 Wesont Lumber 


White pine saw-logs 


9.00 


10.00 


5.00 


24,00 


pe 


-MBM 




Township 




Company, Ltd. 


Spruce saw-logs 


8.00 


12.00 


4.00 


24,00 


pe 


-MBM 








P.O. Box 89 


Balsam saw-logs 


2.00 


6.00 


4.00 


12,00 


pe 


MBM 








Clifford, Ontario 


Cedar saw-logs 


— 


5.00 


3.00 


8,00 


pe 


-MBM 










Hemlock saw-logs 


4.00 


5.00 


3.00 


12,00 


pe 


MBM 










Yellow birch saw-logs 


14.00 


11.00 


5.00 


30,00 


pe 


MBM 










Maple saw-logs 


17.00 


8.00 


5.00 


30,00 


pe 


-MBM 










Basswood saw-logs 


10.00 


11.00 


5.00 


26,00 


pe 


-MBM 










Oak saw-logs 


8.00 


7.00 


5.00 


20,00 


pe 


-MBM 










Ash saw-logs 


2.00 


5.00 


5.00 


12,00 


pe 


rMBM 










Elm saw-logs 


2.00 


5.00 


5.00 


12,00 


pe 


rMBM 










Beech saw-logs 


2.00 


4.50 


1.50 


8,00 


pe 


rMBM 










Hardwood pulpwood 


— 


0.25 


0.50 


0,75 


pe 


-cord 


















con tin I 


jed . . . 



126 



TIMBER SALES ,conUnued> 

FROM APRIL 1, 1968, TO MARCH 31, 1969 



Date 




















Sold 




Area 


No. of 




Bid 


Bonus 


Dues 




Total 


1969 


Locality 


Sq.M. 


Tenders To whom sold 


Kind of Timber 


$ 


$ 


$ 




$ 


Jan. 17 


Gould 


0.2 


5 Leonard N.Smith 


White pine saw-logs 


1.00 


10.00 


5.00 


16.00 


perMBM 




Township 




R.R. #2 


Spruce saw-logs 


2.00 


8.00 


4.00 


14.00 


perMBM 








Thessalon, Ontario 


Hemlock saw-logs 


1.00 


4.00 


3.00 


8.00 


per MBM 










Yellow birch saw-logs 


37.00 


20.00 


5.00 


62.00 


perMBM 










Maple saw-logs 


9.00 


7.00 


5.00 


21.00 


perMBM 


Ian. 10 


Griffith 


1.8 


6 Wallace Weichenthal 


White pine saw-logs 


9.00 


10.00 


5.00 


24.00 


perMBM 




Township 




Hardwood Lake, 


Red pine saw-logs 


6.00 


10.00 


5.00 


21.00 


perMBM 








Ontario 


Spruce saw-logs 


5.00 


12.00 


4.00 


21.00 


per MBM 










Balsam saw-logs 


6.00 


6.00 


4.00 


16.00 


perMBM 










Cedar saw-logs 


7.00 


5.00 


3.00 


15.00 


perMBM 










Hemlock saw-logs 


3.00 


5.00 


3.00 


11.00 


per MBM 










Yellow birch saw-logs 


10.00 


11.00 


5.00 


26.00 


perMBM 










White birch saw-logs 


10.00 


6.50 


1.50 


18.00 


perMBM 










Poplar saw-logs 


5.25 


4.50 


1.50 


11.25 


perMBM 










Maple saw-logs 


6.00 


8.00 


5.00 


19.00 


per MBM 










Basswood saw-logs 


6.00 


11.00 


5.00 


22.00 


perMBM 










Oak saw-logs 


5.00 


7.00 


5.00 


17.00 


perMBM 










Ash saw-logs 


5.00 


5.00 


5.00 


15.00 


per MBM 










Elm saw-logs 


6.00 


5.00 


5.00 


16.00 


perMBM 










Beech saw-logs 


6.00 


4.50 


1.50 


12.00 


perMBM 










Balsam pulpwood 


0.25 


0.60 


1.40 


2.25 


per cord 










White pine pulpwood 


0.25 


0.10 


1.40 


1.75 


per cord 










Red pine pulpwood 


0.25 


0.10 


1.40 


1.75 


per cord 










Hemlock pulpwood 


0.10 


0.10 


1.40 


1.60 


per cord 










Hardwood pulpwood 


0.50 


0.25 


0.50 


1.25 


per cord 



127 



CROWN TIMBER LICENCES, 1968-9 

ISSUED BY VIRTUE OF SECTION 3(1) OF C.T.A. 



Date 



Licensee 



Location 



Expiry Type of 

Date Transaction 



April 4/68 
April 4/68 
May 2/68 
May 2/68 
May 2/68 
May 2/68 
May 16/68 
May 23/68 
May 30/68 
June 20/68 
June 20/68 
June 20/68 
June 20/68 
June 20/68 
June 20/68 
July 4/68 
July 4/68 
July 4/68 

128 



Leonard A. Wilson 

159 Faren Street, New Liskeard, Ontario 

Walter Tuzyk 
Red Lake, Ontario 

O. E. Rothwell Lumber Company Limited 
Lanark, Ontario 

Sioux Lookout Forest Products Limited 
Sioux Lookout, Ontario 

The Great Lakes Paper Company, Limited 
P.O. Box 430, Fort William, Ontario 

Abitibi Paper Company Ltd. 
Toronto-Dominion Centre, Toronto 1, Ontario 

J. E. Martel and Sons Lumber Limited 
Box 488, Chapleau, Ontario 

Abitibi Paper Company Ltd. 

Toronto Dominion Centre, Toronto 1, Ontario 

Buchanan Brothers (Ontario) Limited 
Red Rock, Ontario 

J. H. Normick Ltee. 

Box 2500, La Sarre, Quebec 

Weldwood of Canada Limited 
Box 247, Islington, Ontario 

Malette Lumber Limited 

P.O. Box 91, Timmins, Ontario 

Henry Selin Forest Products Limited 
Hearst, Ontario 

Henry Swanson 

Box 1290, Cochrane, Ontario 

Maurice Ouellette 

Box 1183, Dryden, Ontario 

Joseph Kirouac 

Red Lake Road, Ontario 

William MacBrien 
Mattawa, Ontario 

Rene Ross 

Red Lake Road, Ontario 



Gamble Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

South Canonto Township 



Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Lipsett Township 

Goodfellow and Fallis Townships 

Innes, Craydon and Adamson 
Townships, etc. 

Marriott, Stoughton and 
Frecheville Townships 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Massey and Cote Townships 

McFarlan Township 

Beniah Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Lauder Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 



1968 


New 


1970 


New 


1971 


Re-issue 


1970 


Re-issue 


1969 


New 


1989 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1971 


Re-issue 


1969 


New 




continued . . 



I 



CROWN TIMBER LICENCES, 1968-9 (conunued) 

ISSUED BY VIRTUE OF SECTION 3(1) OF C.T.A. 

Expiry Type of 

Date Licensee Location Date Transaction 



J. H. Normick Ltee. 

Box 2500, La Sarre, Quebec 

J. H. Normick Ltee. 

Box 2500, La Sarre, Quebec 

Bruce Campbell 
Quibel, Ontario 

Leonard Jones 

Red Lake Road, Ontario 

Sawyer-Stoll Lumber Company of 
Canada Limited, Kaladar, Ontario 

Bay Lumber Limited 
Westree, Ontario 

Gerard LeBlanc 

53 McKelvie Avenue, Kirkland Lake, Ontario 

Northern Forest Products Limited 
Box 990, Port Arthur, Ontario 

Mclntyre-Porcupine Mines Limited 
Schumacher, Ontario 

G. A. Querel 
Vermilion Bay, Ontario 

Abitibi Paper Company, Ltd. 

Toronto Dominion Centre, Toronto 1, Ontario 

Pembroke Lumber Company Limited 
Pembroke, Ontario 

William Stewart Murray 
Flanders, Ontario 

Northern Forest Products Limited 
Box 990, Port Arthur, Ontario 

August 1/68 Weyerhaeuser Canada Limited 
Box 179, Richmond Hill, Ontario 

August 1/68 Trilake Timber Company Limited 
Box 361, Kenora, Ontario 

August 8/68 Whitman Lumber Company Limited 
North Bay, Ontario 

August 15/68 Chapleau Lumber Company Limited 
Chapleau, Ontario 



July 4/68 


July 4/68 


July 4/68 


July 4/68 


July 4/68 


July 4/68 


July 4/68 


July 11/68 


July 11/68 


July 18/68 


July 18/68 


July 18/68 


July 18/68 


July 18/68 



Abbotsford Township 

Sargeant and Berry Townships 

Llnsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Llnsurveyed Territory 
Kenora, Ontario 

Anglesea Township 

Leonard Township 

Davidson and Smyth Townships 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Sewell Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Llnsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Edgar Township 

Bennett Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Ceraldton District 

Papineau Boyd, Lister 
Townships, etc. 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Lockhart Township 

Ramsden and Buckland Townships 



1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1971 


New 


1970 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 



1974 Re-issue 

1969 New 
1989 New 
1972 Re-issue 

1970 Re-issue 
1969 New 
1977 Re-issue 
1969 New 

1971 Re-issue 
1969 Re-issue 

continued . . 



129 



CROWN TIMBER LICENCES, 1968-9 (conunued) 

ISSUED BY VIRTUE OF SECTION 3(1) OF C.T.A. 



Date 



Licensee 



Location 



Expiry 
Date 



Type of 
Transaction 



August 15/68 
August 22/68 
August 22/68 
September 12/68 
September 12/68 
September 12/68 
September 12/68 
September 12/68 
September 12/68 
September 12/68 
September 26/68 
September 26/68 
September 26/68 
September 26/68 
October 3/68 
October 10/68 

October 10/68 
October 17/68 

130 



Feldman Timber (Matheson) Limited 
P.O. Box 440, Timmins, Ontario 

Northern Forest Products Limited 
Box 990, Port Arthur, Ontario 

Freymond Lumber Limited 
R.R.#2, Bancroft, Ontario 

Consolidated-Bathurst Limited 
Box 68, Portage Du Fort, Quebec 

Elof Christianson 
Mattice, Ontario 

lames Gibson and Sons Limited 
P.O. Box 734, North Bay, Ontario 

Pearson Forest Products Limited 
Box 219, Fort Frances, Ontario 

Vic Pearson and Sons Limited 
Box 113, Fort Frances, Ontario 

A. & L. Lafreniere Lumber Limited 
Chapleau, Ontario 

Roger Fryer 
Monetville, Ontario 

Maurice Lecours 

Box 1000, Hearst, Ontario 

Wilfrid Larabie 
River Valley, Ontario 

Sawyer-Stoll Lumber Company of Canada 
Limited, Kaladar, Ontario 

Crystal Falls Enterprises Limited 
Crystal Falls, Ontario 

Multiply Plywoods Limited 
Nipigon, Ontario 

Abitibi Paper Company Ltd. 
Toronto Dominion Centre, 
Toronto 1, Ontario 

Kormak Lumber Company Limited 
6 Dufferin Street, Sudbury, Ontario 

The Great Lakes Paper Company 
P.O. Box 430, Fort William, Ontario 



Garrison and Marker Townships 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Dungannon and Mayo Townships 

Bronson Township 

Sankey Township 

Phelps Township 

LJnsurveyed Territory 
Rainy River District 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Ramy River District 

Racine Township 

Attlee Township 

Bannerman Township 

Henry Township 

Miller Township 

Grant Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Aubin, Nesbitt and Crawford 
Townships, etc. 

Township 11 E 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 



1969 


New 


1971 


New 


1973 


New 


1971 


New 


1971 


New 


1969 


Re-issue 


1970 


Re-issue 


1970 


Re-issue 


1969 


Re-issue 


1971 


New 


1969 


New 


1970 


New 


1971 


Re-issue 


1971 


New 


1969 


New 


1978 


Re-issue 


1971 


New 


1969 


New 




continued . 



CROWN TIMBER LICENCES, 1968-9 <con,nued) 

ISSUED BY VIRTUE OF SECTION 3(1) OF CT.A. 



Date 



Licensee 



Location 



Expiry 
Date 



Type of 
Transaction 



October 31/68 
October 31/68 
October 31/68 
October 31/68 
November 7/68 
November 7/68 
November 7/68 
November 14/68 
November 14/68 
November 28/68 
November 28/68 
November 28/68 
December 5/68 
December 12/68 
December 12/68 
December 12/68 
December 12/68 
December 12/68 



Chantier Co-Operative de Barker 
Richard Renault 

Kenneth McDougall 
Red Lake, Ontario 

La Societe Co-Operative de Mattice 
Mattice, Ontario 

Meadowside Lumber Limited 

1230 Fraser Street, North Bay, Ontario 

H.D. Fryer 
Monetville, Ontario 

Isidore Roy 

175 Front Street, Sturgeon Falls, Ontario 

Murray Bros. Lumber Co. Ltd. 
Barry's Bay, Ontario 

AlbertJ. Griffiths 

R.R. #1 , Kenora, Ontario 

Camille Ducharme 
Mattawa, Ontario 

Romeo Lafreniere 
Mattawa, Ontario 

Biglovv Lumber (1966) Limited 
Devon, Ontario 

Cochrane Enterprises Limited 
Cochrane, Ontario 

Buchanan Brothers (Ontario) Limited 
Red Rock, Ontario 

Rene Fabris 

Box 327, Elliot Lake, Ontario 

Kakabeka Timber Limited 
Box 35, Port Arthur, Ontario 

Consolidated-Bathurst Limited 
Box 68, Portage Du Fort, Quebec 

L. Vincent Burns 

Box 222, Massey, Ontario 

Henry Kutzler 

R.R. -ffl, Kakabeka Falls, Ontario 



Barker Township 

Heyson Township 

McCrea Township 

Charlton and BIyth Townships 

Falconer Township 

Davis Township 

Dickson and Niven Townships 

Rudd Township 

Papineau Township 

Fairbank Township 

Borden, Chewett and Gamey Townships 

Laughton and Heighington Townships 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Township 143 

Lismore Township 

Fitzgerald and Deacon Townships 

Tennyson Township 

Adrian Township 



1969 


New 


1970 


Re-issue 


1969 


New 


1970 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


Re-issue 


1971 


New 


1971 


New 


1973 


New 


1971 


New 


1973 


Re-issue 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1971 


New 


1971 


New 


1971 


Re-issue 


1969 


New 


1973 


New 




continued . . . 




131 



CROWN TIMBER LICENCES, 1968-9 icon.nued) 

ISSUED BY VIRTUE OF SECTION 3(1) OF C.T.A. 



Dale 



Licensee 



Location 



Expiry 
Date 



Type of 
Transaction 



December 19/68 

January 2/69 
January 2/69 
January 2/69 
January 2/69 
January 2/69 
January 2/69 
January 2/69 
January 2/69 
January 2/69 
January 2/69 

January 9/69 
January 9/69 
January 9/69 
January 9/69 
January 9/69 
January 9/69 
January 16/69 

132 



J. F. Thomson Timber Limited 
Ruttan Block, Port Arthur, Ontario 

G. K. Stringer Limited 

251 Moore Street, South Porcupine, Ontario 

The Morrison Brothers Limited 
Marten River, Ontario 

Asam Brothers 

R.R. #1, Rydal Bank, Ontario 

Vernon Armstrong 

724 First Street West, Fort Frances, Ontario 

M. J. Umpherson 
Clyde Forks, Ontario 

Odorizzi Lumber Company 
Golden Valley, Ontario 

A. E. Jacobson Lumber Company 

223 South Hill Street, Port Arthur, Ontario 

Weldwood of Canada Limited 
P.O. Box 247, Islington, Ontario 

Firesteel Contractors Limited 

P.O. Box 1194, Port Arthur, Ontario 

Paul Csuzdi 

925 Kildonan Drive, E-K., 

Winnipeg 15, Manitoba 

Island Lake Lumber Company 
P.O. Box 310, Chapleau, Ontario 

Nym Lake Timber Company 
Roadside Lodge, Atikokan, Ontario 

James Gibson and Sons Limited 
P.O. Box 734, North Bay, Ontario 

Benoit D'Amours 

R.R. #1, Moonbeam, Ontario 

Jack Finch 
Emo, Ontario 

Richard Renault 
Dorion, Ontario 

Vic Pearson and Sons Limited 
Box 113, Fort Frances, Ontario 



Soper Township 

Eldorado Township 

Olive, Sisk and Law Townships, etc. 

Aberdeen Township 

Criesinger Township 

Lavant Township 

Patterson Township 

Haines Township 

Law Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Pelican and Umbach Townships 



Township 12H 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Ramy River District 

Stewart, Merrick and Mulock Townships 

Nansen Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Rainy River District 

Dorion Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Rainy River District 



1971 


Re-issue 


1973 


Re-issue 


1971 


Re-issue 


1971 


Re-issue 


1970 


Re-issue 


1971 


Re-issue 


1972 


Re-issue 


1971 


Re-issue 


1971 


Re-issue 


1969 


New 


1971 


New 


1971 


Re-issue 


1970 


Re-issue 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 



1970 Re-issue 
1973 New 

1970 Re-issue 
continued . 



CROWN TIMBER LICENCES, 1968-9 (con.nued) 

ISSUED BY VIRTUE OF SECTION 3(1) OF C.T.A. 



Date 



Licensee 



Location 



Expiry 
Date 



Type of 
Transaction 



January 16/69 Meadowside Lumber Limited 

1230 Fraser Street, North Bay, Ontario 

January 16/69 Rathwell Lumber Limited 
Dryden, Ontario 

January 16/69 Amo Corporation 

Box 40, Kenora, Ontario 

January 16/69 A. Lecours and Sons Limited 
Hearst, Ontario 

January 16/69 Grant and Wilson 
Swastika, Ontario 

January 16/69 John W. Fogg Limited 

Allanburg Road, Thorold, Ontario 

January 16/69 Romeo Richer 

Box 142, Markstay, Ontario 

January 16/69 A. E. Wicks Limited 

Allanburg Road, Thorold, Ontario 

January 16/69 A. E. Wicks Limited 

Allanburg Road, Thorold, Ontario 

January 16/69 John W. Fogg Limited 

Allanburg Road, Thorold, Ontario 

January 23/69 A.G.Wilson 

Boulter, Ontario 

January 23/69 Boreal Timber Limited 

Box 627, Port Arthur, Ontario 

January 23/69 Ken Dooley Bulldozing 

P.O. Box 245, Schreiber, Ontario 

January 23/69 Lecours Lumber Company 
Calstock, Ontario 

January 30/69 Feldman Timber Company Limited 
Timmins, Ontario 

January 30/69 Rino Baldi 

Dorion, Ontario 

January 30/69 The Frawley Lake Lumber Company 
Box 83, Callander, Ontario 

February 6/69 E. R. De Gagne 

R.R. #2, Kenora, Ontario 



Lyman Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Fushimi and Rogers Township 

Black Township 

Pinard, Parliament and Avon Townships 

Hawley Township 

Bartlett, Beemer and English 
Townships, etc. 

Beniah, Thorning and Blount 
Townships, etc. 

Douglas, Fallon, Fasken 
Townships, etc. 

Townships 151, 157 and 163 

LJnsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Thunder Bay District 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Cochrane, Ontario 

Carscallen Township 

Forbes Township 

Flett Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 



1970 


New 


1970 


Re-issue 


1971 


New 


1971 


Re-issue 


1971 


Re-issue 


1977 


Re-issue 



1970 Re-issue 
1977 Re-issue 
1977 Re-issue 
1977 Re-issue 
1969 New 
1969 New 
1969 New 

1971 New 

1969 New 

1971 New 

1969 Re-issue 

1971 New 

continued . . . 
133 



CROWN TIMBER LICENCES, 1968-9 (continued 

ISSUED BY VIRTUE OF SECTION 3(1) OF C.T.A. 



Date 



Licensee 



Location 



February 6/69 Rathwell Lumber Limited 
Dryden, Ontario 

February 13/69 Ahola Brothers 

Box 100, Kearney, Ontario 

February 27/69 Kokotow Lumber Limited 

5 McCamus Avenue, Kirkland Lake, Ontario 

February 27/69 Sawyer-Stoll Lumber Company of Canada 
Limited 
Kaladar, Ontario 

February 27/69 Clouthier Brothers Limited 
Strickland, Ontario 

February 27/69 Jesse Georgeson 

504 Webster Avenue, Fort Frances, Ontario 

February 27/69 Wilfred Paiement 
Earlton, Ontario 

February 27/69 Grant Lumber Company Limited 
Sixth Street, Elk Lake, Ontario 

March 6/69 B. & C. Timber Company 

Spanish, Ontario 

March 6/69 B. & C. Timber Company Limited 

Spanish, Ontario 

March 20/69 Edward Wunsch 

Box 514, Mattawa, Ontario 

March 20/69 Ankney and Franklin Contracting Limited 

Savant Lake, Ontario 



Unsurveyed Territory 
Kenora District 

Bethune Township 
Gross Township 
Effingham Township 

Alexandra Township 

Unsurveyed Territory 
Rainy River District 

Burt Township 

Dunmore Township 

Nairn Township 

Shedden and Deagle Townships 

Papineau Township 

Conant and Boucher Townships 



Expiry 
Date 



Type of 
Transaction 



1971 


New 


1973 


New 


1969 


New 


1973 


New 


1970 


New 


1971 


New 


1969 


New 


1969 


New 


1970 


New 


1970 


New 


1971 


New 


1969 


New 



134